TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIAN ALELOPATI UNTUK PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DAN KESEHATAN NILAM

TEKNOLOGI PENGENDALIAN ALELOPATI UNTUK PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS DAN KESEHATAN NILAM

M. Djazuli dan N. Maslahah

ABSTRAK

Beberapa senyawa asam fenolat yang dikeluarkan akar nilam bersifat autotoksik dan dapat menekan pertumbuhan nilam itu sendiri. Penambahan pembenah tanah dapat mempertahankan dan meningkatkan kualitas fisik dan dan kimia tanah sekaligus memperbaiki pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman. Tujuan penelitian adalah mendapatkan jenis pembenah tanah dan dosisi pupuk organik yang dapat menekan efek senyawa alelopati sekaligus meningkatan produksi dan pertumbuhan tanaman nilam pada budidaya menetap. Penelitian dilakukan pada skala pot di sentra pengembangan nilam di Curup, Bengkulu dan di Bogor mulai bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2012. Percobaan disusun dengan menggunakan RAK, 7 perlakuan, 3 ulangan dan 6 tanaman per perlakuan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah (1) 1 kg pupuk kandang (pukan), (2) Tumpangsari dengan mentha +1kg pukan, (3) 0.1 kg Kaptan/pot + 1kg pukan, (4) 0.1 kg Arang tempurung +1 kg Pukan, (5) perendaman dalam larutan 0.5 ml/l Ca-SA + pemberian 1 kg Pukan, (6) 0.1 kg MgSO4 + 1 kg pukan, dan (7) Tanah baru bukan bekas nilam (TBBN) + 1 kg pukan. Sebelum ditanami, tanah dicampur dengan bahan penetralisir alelopati yang diuji. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan perlakuan pupuk kandang saja baik baik untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi terna serta minyak nilam, tetapi belum bisa mengurangi kandungan asam kumarat di dalam tanah. Namun, perlakuan pupuk kandang yang dicampur dengan arang tempurung atau MgSO4 mampu memperbaiki pertumbuhan dan produksi terna serta minyak nilam, sekaligus mengurangi jumlah asam kumarat di dalam tanah. Pada tanah yang hanya diberi perlakuan pupuk kandang, jumlah asam kumarat masih tinggi (1,51%), tetapi pada perlakuan pupuk kandang + arang tempurung dan pupuk kandang + MgSO4, jumlah asam kumarat menurun masing-masing menjadi 0,72% (penurunan 62,12%) dan 0,96% (penurunan 56,43%). Dengan demikian, pemberian pupuk kandang yang dikombinasikan dengan arang tempurung atau MgSO4 dapat direkomendasikan untuk mengatasi masalah alelopati sehingga pertanaman nilam tidak perlu berpindah-pindah setiap musim tanam.

Kata kunci: Nilam, alelopati, pembenah tanah, pertumbuhan, produksi tanaman

ABSTRACT

Some fenoilc acid compounds secreted by roots of patchouli plant are auto toxic (allelopathy) and suppressed the growth of patchouli. Addition of soil amendments could minimize its toxicity and improve soil healthy as well as plant production. The study was aimed to evaluate several types of soil ammendments and their dosages to suppress allelopathic effects as well as improve plant growth and production. The study was conducted in pots at field conditions in central patchouli production in Curup, Bengkulu and Bogor from January to December 2012. Experiments were arranged in a complete randomized block design, 7 treatments, 3 replicates consist of 6 plants/replicate. Treatments evaluated were (1) 1 kg organic manure, (2) mix cropping of patchouli with mint +1kg organic manure, (3) 0.1 kg dolomite/pot + 1kg organic manure, (4) 0.1 kg coconut charcoal +1 kg organic manure, (5) dipping in 0.5 ml/l Ca-Salicylic acid solution + 1 kg organic manure, (6) 0.1 kg MgSO4 + 1 kg organic manute, dan (7) virgin soil + 1 kg organic manure. After treatments were applied, the patchouli stems was planted. Results showed ammendment with organic manute increased plant growth and production, as well as oil production. However, it cannot reduce coumaric acids as an indicator of allopathy effect on the plant. Mix treatment of organic manure and MgSO4 increased plant growth and production, as well as coumaric acid content in the soil. Coumaric acids content in the soil treated with organic manure only was highest (1.51%), bit if it was mixed with coconut charcoal or MgSo4, the coumaric acids content reduced to 0.72% and 0.96%, respectively. Therefore, the study suggests amendment of organic manure with coconut charcoal or MgSO4 are recommended to minimize allelopathy on patchouli plant.

Keywords: Pogostemon cablin Benth, allelopathy, soil amelioration, growth production

Download pdf,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *