PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN KOMPOS LIMBAH NILAM DAN NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI NILAM Effect of NPK fertilizer and patchouli waste compost application on growth and productivity of patchouli

 PENGARUH PEMUPUKAN KOMPOS LIMBAH NILAM DAN NPK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI NILAM Effect of NPK fertilizer and patchouli waste compost application on growth and productivity of patchouli

Muhammad Djazuli

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010 balittro@litbang.deptan.go.id muhamaddjazuli@yahoo.com (diterima 11 November 2013, direvisi 12 Desember 2013, disetujui 27 Desember 2013)

ABSTRAK

Pemanfaatan limbah nilam hasil penyulingan masih sangat terbatas dan pada umumnya limbah tersebut digunakan sebagai tambahan bahan bakar penyulingan nilam. Untuk mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan limbah nilam tersebut sekaligus membantu mengatasi kebutuhan dan mahalnya pupuk buatan saat ini maka dilakukan sebuah percobaan pot di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat (Balittro) Bogor pada tahun 2008. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah tiga dosis pemupukan kompos limbah nilam masing-masing 0, 1,5 dan 3,0 kg pot-1 dan faktor kedua adalah tiga dosis pemupukan NPK masing-masing 0, 8, dan 16 g pot-1. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi pupuk kompos maupun pupuk NPK mampu meningkatkan jumlah cabang primer. Aplikasi tiga kilogram kompos limbah nilam pot-1 meningkatkan bobot terna nilam secara nyata pada ketiga dosis NPK yang diberikan. Tingginya kadar N pada kompos limbah nilam (3,59%) menyebabkan kompos limbah nilam sangat efektif meningkatkan kesuburan pada tanah percobaan dan memperbaiki pertumbuhan tanaman nilam. Aplikasi pupuk kompos pada perlakuan tanpa pupuk NPK (K2P0) lebih baik dibanding perlakuan pupuk NPK tanpa kompos (K0P2). Kombinasi perlakuan pemupukan kompos dan NPK tertinggi (K2P2) mampu menghasilkan terna nilam segar tertinggi sebesar 335 g tanaman-1. Proses penyulingan dan pengomposan mampu menurunkan senyawa fenolik yang bersifat alelopatik dan toksik seperti asam koumarat, asam adipat, asam sinapat, dan asam hidroksi benzoat pada daun nilam. Kadar minyak nilam varietas Sidikalang beragam dengan kisaran antara 2,39 sampai dengan 4,34% bahan kering.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, kompos limbah nilam, pupuk NPK, pertumbuhan, produksi

ABSTRACT

Utilization of patchouli distillation waste product is limited and mainly were used for fire wood material substitution for distillation patchouli oil processes. In order to optimize patchouli wasted product utilization and to solve the high cost of inorganic fertilizer, so that a pot experiment was conducted at Indonesian of Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI), Bogor in 2008. A factorial Randomized Block design with three replications was used. Main factors tested were patchouli waste compost and secondary factor were NPK fertilizer consisting of three rates, respectively. The rates of composted product of patrchouli added were 0, 1,5 and 3,0 kg pot-1, while those of inorganic fertilizer (NPK) were 0, 8, and 16 g pot-1. Experiment results showed that compost and NPK fertilizer application were able to increase number of primer branches significantly. Application of three pounds patchouli waste compost/pot increased production at the three level of NPK fertilizer applied in the experiment. High N content of patchouli waste compost (3.59%) was effective for improving soil fertility and patchouli plant growth. Application of compost without NPK (K2P0) treatment showed was better response compared than application of NPK without compost (K0P2) treatment. Combination treatment of high compost and NPK (K2P2) was able to produce highest production at 335 g plant-1. Distillation and composting process reduced content of Phenol compound that is known as allelopatic and toxic compound such as coumaric acid, adipic acids, sinapic acid and hydroxy benzoic acid in the patchouli leaves. Patchouli oil content of Sidikalang variety was vary from 2.39 to 4.34% of dry weight.

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, patchouli waste compost, NPK fertilizer, growth, production

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