TANGGAP PETANI DAN KELAYAKAN PENGEMBANGAN BENIH NILAM HASIL KULTUR JARINGAN

TANGGAP PETANI DAN KELAYAKAN PENGEMBANGAN BENIH NILAM HASIL KULTUR JARINGAN

Perceptive of farmers and feasibility on the development of patchouli tissue culture seeds

Ekwasita Rini Pribadi dan Sujianto

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111  pribadi_ekwasita@yahoo.com

(diterima 14 Juni 2012, disetujui 10 September 2012)

ABSTRAK

Penelitian tanggap petani dan kelayakan benih nilam hasil kultur jaringan dilakukan dengan demplot di kebun petani Kecamatan Cibeurem, Kuningan, Jawa Barat sejak Januari sampai Juni 2011. Rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) terdiri atas dua perlakuan (1) Benih hasil kultur jaringan dan (2) Benih setek pucuk (konvensional) masing-masing diulang 10 kali dengan 50 tanaman per petak, jarak tanam 100 cm x 50 cm, dengan jenis dan dosis pupuk sesuai anjuran. Data tanggap petani dikumpulkan melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur kepada 18 orang anggota kelompok tani nilam Pendil Cisusu, Kecamatan Cibeureum. Kelayakan teknologi benih nilam hasil kultur jaringan diukur berdasarkan produksi terna basah dan kering per satuan luas, efisiensi ekonomis berdasarkan (1) pendapatan per satuan luas, (2) rasio antara pendapatan bersih dan pendapatan kotor, serta efisiensi alokatif (harga) berdasarkan rasio antara biaya operasional dan pendapatan kotor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan petani responden tanggap terhadap benih hasil kultur jaringan karena vigor tanaman, ketahanan terhadap hama dan penyakit, serta produksi terna yang lebih baik. Analisis efisiensi teknis menunjukkan bahwa budidaya menggunakan benih nilam hasil kultur jaringan lebih efisien karena menghasilkan terna basah untuk tiga kali panen tahun-1 (4.927 kg 1.000 m2-1) dan terna kering (1.205 kg 1.000 m2-1) lebih tinggi dari pada budidaya petani, dan lebih efisien dalam alokasi input (harga), yaitu pada produk terna basah 66,67% dan terna kering 69,90%. Walaupun demikian harga benih kultur jaringan (Rp.796,- polibag-1) lebih mahal dari harga benih petani (Rp 550,- polibag-1).

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, tanggap petani, benih kultur jaringan, kelayakan usaha

ABSTRACT

Research on response of farmer and feasibility of tissue culture seeds of patchouli was done in the form demonstration plots on farm, in Cibeurem District, Kuningan, West Java, from January to June 2011. Randomized block design (RBD) consisting of two treatments (1) Seeds derived from the tissue culture and (2) Seeds derived from cuttings shoot, repeated 10 times with 50 plants per plot each. Plant spacing, kinds and dose of manure or fertilizers were applied following the available recommendation. Response data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire to 18 members of farmer groups. The feasibility was measured based on the level of technical efficiency of the fresh and dry herb production per unit area, economic efficiency based on (1) income per unit area and (2) the ratio between net and gross income, and price efiiciency based on the ratio between operating expenses and gross income. The results showed that the farmers exhibited positive response to tissue culture seeds of patchouli introduced, due to better plant vigor, resistance to pests and diseases, and higher yield. Cultivation of tissue culture seeds of patchouli exhibited more efficiently than farmer cultivation, since its produced fresh herb in three times harvesting year-1 (4,927 kg 1,000 m2-1) and dry herb (1,205kg 1,000  m2-1), and more pricingly efficient in alocation of inputs that were 66.67% for fresh herb and 69.90% for dry herb. However, culture seeds more expensive (Rp 796,- polibag-1) than seeds of farmers (Rp 550,- polibag-1).

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, response of farmers, tissue culture seeds, feasibility

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