EFIKASI FORMULA FUNGISIDA NABATI TERHADAP PENYAKIT BERCAK DAUN JAHE Phyllosticta sp

EFIKASI FORMULA FUNGISIDA NABATI TERHADAP PENYAKIT BERCAK DAUN JAHE Phyllosticta sp.

Effication of botanical fungicide formulaagainst Phyllosticta sp. leaf spot on ginger

Sri Yuni Hartati

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 sriyuni_hartati@yahoo.com

(diterima 21 Maret 2012, disetujui 26 September 2012)

ABSTRAK

Penyakit bercak daun, yang disebabkan oleh Phyllosticta sp., merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sangat merugikan pada tanaman jahe. Salah satu alternatif cara pengendalian yang ramah terhadap lingkungan adalah menggunakan pestisida nabati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji stabilitas, efektivitas, dan fitotoksisitas pestisida nabati berbahan aktif minyak atsiri cengkeh dan serai wangi untuk mengendalikan penyakit bercak daun pada jahe. Pembuatan formula pestisida, pengujian stabilitas, dan uji efektivitasnya secara in vitro dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat di Bogor. Pengujian fitotoksisitas dilakukan di rumah kaca, sedangkan uji efektivitas dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Cicurug, Jawa Barat. Pada penelitian ini telah dibuat formula pestisida berbahan aktif minyak cengkeh dan serai wangi dalam bentuk EC (Emulsified Concentrate). Selanjutnya, formula EC tersebut diuji stabilitas, efektivitas, dan fitotoksisitasnya terhadap penyakit bercak daun jahe. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa formula EC masih stabil selama 10 bulan dalam penyimpanan pada suhu kamar. Formula EC terbukti tidak fitotoksik pada tanaman jahe apabila disemprotkan pada konsentrasi kurang dari dua persen. Hasil pengujian efektivitas secara in vitro menunjukkan bahwa formula EC pada konsentrasi 0,025% dapat menghambat 100% pertumbuhan jamur Rhizoctonia sp. Formula EC (0,2%) yang disemprotkan pada tanaman jahe setiap minggu selama empat bulan berturut-turut dapat mengendalikan penyakit bercak daun sampai pada tingkat serangan di bawah 10%. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pestisida nabati yang mengandung minyak cengkeh dan serai wangi cukup stabil dan efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit bercak daun pada tanaman jahe.

Kata kunci: jahe, bercak daun, Phyllosticta sp., pestisida nabati

ABSTRACT

Leaf spot caused by Phyllosticta sp. is one of the most destructive diseases on ginger. One of environmentally friendly control measures to control plant pathogens is using botanical pesticides. This research was aimed to study the stability, effectifity, and phytotoxicity of an essential oil-based botanical pesticide formula containing clove and lemonfrass oils for controlling leaf spot disease on ginger. The stability, in vitro effectivity, and phytotoxicity tests of the formula were conducted in the laboratory and in the glass house at Indonesian of Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in Bogor. Effectifity test was also conducted in Cicurug Experimental Garden, West Java. This experiment produced an improved essential oil-based pesticide fomula containing clove and citronella oils in the form of emulsified concentrate (EC). The EC formula was then tested its stability, effectifity, and phytotoxicity. The result showed that the EC formula was stable up to 10 months under storage condition at room temperature. The EC formula was not phytotoxic on ginger plants when sprayed in the concentration less than two percent. In vitro test showed that EC formula (0,025%) inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia sp. The EC formula (0,2%) apllied weekly for consecutive four months on ginger plants could control leaf spot disease intensity up to the level less than 10%. The study indicated that the EC formula of essential oil-based botanical pesticide containing clove and lemongrass oils was stable and effective to control leaf spot disease on ginger.

Key words: ginger, leaf spot, Phyllosticta sp., botanical pesticide

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One thought on “EFIKASI FORMULA FUNGISIDA NABATI TERHADAP PENYAKIT BERCAK DAUN JAHE Phyllosticta sp

  • Monday July 29th, 2019 at 02:38 AM
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