KERAGAMAN HASIL DAN UKURAN RIMPANG LEMPUYANG WANGI (Zingiber aromaticum) PERTANAMAN ASAL BENIH

KERAGAMAN HASIL DAN UKURAN RIMPANG LEMPUYANG WANGI (Zingiber aromaticum) PERTANAMAN ASAL BENIH 

Rhizome yield and size variation of Zingiber aromaticum propagated from true seed

Sri Wahyuni

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 yulni@yahoo.com

(diterima 06 November 2012, disetujui 14 Januari 2013)

ABSTRAK

Lempuyang wangi termasuk family Zingiberaceae, yang biasa diperbanyak menggunakan rimpang. Tanaman lempuyang membentuk bunga, buah dan biji. Biji lempuyang dapat tumbuh walaupun membutuhkan waktu lama untuk berkecambah. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penanaman lempuyang wangi yang diperbanyak dari biji. Biji lempuyang dipanen dari pertanaman lempuyang wangi yang berdekatan dengan areal penanaman lempuyang gajah. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui morfologi dan produksi rimpang lempuyang wangi dengan benih asal biji. Biji lempuyang dikecambahkan pada media arang sekam. Lima puluh semai yang tumbuh baik, kemudian ditanam dalam polybag. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap morfologi tanaman, produksi rimpang dan karakteristik rimpang. Panen rimpang dilakukan umur 10 bulan setelah tanam. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan morfologi tanaman, produksi rimpang, ukuran rimpang dan warna daging rimpang, beragam dengan tingkat keragaman tergolong luas. Secara visual sosok tanaman lebih kecil dari tanaman induk dengan jumlah anakan banyak (lebih kurang 30 anakan). Kisaran produksi rimpang per rumpun 20-450 g, lebih kecil dari rimpang lempuyang induk (300-1.200 g). Ukuran panjang rimpang 7-30 cm, lebar rimpang 3,5-18 cm dan jumlah propagul 2-37 buah. Warna dan aroma daging rimpang bervariasi, dari wangi lembut sampai langu. Perlu dilakukan penanaman ulang rimpang hasil panen pada generasi ke-2 untuk mengetahui apakah tanaman dapat berproduksi dan berukuran rimpang normal.

Kata kunci: Zingiber aromaticum, benih biji, morfologi, produksi rimpang, ukuran rimpang

ABSTRACT

Zingiber aromaticum belongs to Zingiberaceae family.  It  was commonly propagated by rhizome although they produce flower, fruit and seed. However, the seed is difficult to germinate.  In this research, Z. aromaticum was propagated by seed, taken from Z. aromaticum plantation which was in the same area with Z. zerumbet. Research was aimed to observe the morphological characters, yield and size of rhizome of the F1 plants. Seed was germinated in rice husk-charcoal media. Fifty germinated seeds were planted in 15 cm x 20 cm polybag.  The parameters observed were morphological characters, yield and size of the rhizome. Rhizome was harvested 10 months after planting. Results showed that plant morphology, yield and size of rhizome had wide phenotypic variations. Visually, plant performance was smaller with more tillers (up to 30 tillers) than the mother plant. Rhizome yield were ranged from 20 to 450 g plant-1, lower than mother plant (300-1,200 g plant-1). The rhizome length ranged from 7 to 30 cm, whereas rhizome width was 3.5 to 18 cm and number of propagules ranged from 2 to 37. Colour and fragrant of flesh rhizome were varied. Flesh rhizome fragrant was soft-scent to rather strong smell.  Replanting of F2 rhizomes is required for further observation to study whether the seed propagation of Z. aromaticum can produce rhizome in  normal size.

Key words: Zingiber aromaticum, seed, morphology, rhizome yield, size of rhizome

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