Perlakuan Benih Air Panas, Ekstrak Mimba dan Jarak Kepyar untuk Mengendalikan Nematoda (Meloidogyne spp.) Terbawa Rimpang Jahe

PERLAKUAN BENIH AIR PANAS, EKSTRAK MIMBA DAN JARAK KEPYAR UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN NEMATODA (Meloidogyne spp.) TERBAWA RIMPANG JAHE

Effectiveness of several seed treatment methods to control rhizome seed-borne nematode Meloidogyne spp. of ginger

Oleh : Setyowati Retno Djiwanti

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.pertanian.go.id

(diterima 05 September 2014, direvisi 02 Oktober 2014, disetujui 28 November 2014)

ABSTRAK

Benih rimpang jahe dapat membawa organisme pengganggu tanaman berbahaya seperti nematoda buncak akar, Meloidogyne spp. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji pengaruh metode perlakuan benih dalam menekan serangan nematoda terbawa rimpang jahe Meloidogyne spp. Penelitian dilakukan di rumah kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor sejak 2005 sampai 2006. Rimpang jahe terinfeksi Meloidogyne spp. dicuci bersih, dipotong seberat 30-40 g, kemudian diberi perlakuan (1) perendaman dalam air panas (40°C selama 20 menit dan 50°C selama 10 menit), (2) perendaman dalam larutan ekstrak nabati mimba (2,5 dan 7,5%) dan jarak (2,5 dan 7,5%), (3) perendaman dalam larutan kimia karbosulfan EC (2 ml l-1 air), (4) pelapisan dengan tepung kimia karbosulfan ST (20 g kg-1 rimpang) dan (5) direndam air selama dua jam (kontrol). Rimpang setelah diperlakukan, ditanam dalam polibag berisi media tanah steril di rumah kaca. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 10 ulangan. Pertumbuhan tanaman dan populasi nematoda diamati setelah jahe berumur empat bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan air panas 50°C selama 10 menit paling baik dalam menekan populasi nematoda sebesar 80,86%, diikuti perlakuan perendaman dalam larutan 2,5% ekstrak mimba (25,24%) dan pelapisan dengan tepung karbosulfan ST (23,66%). Perlakuan benih yang diuji umumnya tidak menekan pertumbuhan tanaman. Parameter tingkat populasi nematoda (dalam akar, rimpang dan tanah) lebih sensitif untuk merefleksikan keefektifan suatu perlakuan benih rimpang jahe dibandingkan parameter indeks buncak. Pada perlakuan benih terbaik yaitu air panas 500C selama 10 menit, penekanan populasi nematoda menghasilkan nilai yang signifikan dibandingkan penekanan indeks buncak pada akar dan rimpang.

Kata kunci: jahe, perlakuan benih, Meloidogyne spp., pengendalian

ABSTRACT

 

Ginger rhizome seed could be infected with root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. The objective of the experiment was to test the effectiveness of several seed treatment methods to suppress nematode infection, conducted in greenhouse of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute (ISMCRI), Bogor from 2005 to 2006. A 30-40 g ginger rhizomes, treated with (1) soaking in hot water (40°C for 20 minutes and 50°C for 10 minutes), (2) soaking in extract solution of neem (2.5 and 7.5%) and castor (2.5 and 7.5%), (3) soaking in chemical solution carbosulfan EC (2 ml l-1 water), (4) coating with chemical powder carbosulfan ST (20 g kg-1 rhizome) and (5) soaking in water for two hours (control). Treated rhizomes were planted in polybags contained sterile soil and maintained in greenhouse condition. The experiment was designed as randomized block design with 10 replications. Parameters observed at four months after planting were plant growth, nematode population and root-knot index. Hot water treatment 50°C for 10 minutes gave the best effect in suppressing nematode population (80.86%); followed by treatments of 2.5% neem extract solution (25.24%) and carbosulfan ST powder coating (23.66%). In general, seed treatment tested did not inhibit plant growth (phytotoxic). Nematode population parameter (in root, rhizome and soil) was more reliable to reflect the effectiveness of seed treatment method to control nematode-rhizome seed borne compared to root-and rhizome-knot index. In the best seed treatment (hot water 50°C for 10 minutes), nematode population suppression indicated significant value compared to knot index of root and rhizome.
Key words: ginger, seed treatment, Meloidogyne spp., control


Download full papper

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *