Mutu Fisiologis Rimpang Benih Jahe Putih Besar Selama Penyimpanan dengan Pelapisan Lilin dan Aplikasi Paclobutrazol

MUTU FISIOLOGIS RIMPANG BENIH JAHE PUTIH BESAR SELAMA PENYIMPANAN DENGAN PELAPISAN LILIN DAN APLIKASI PACLOBUTRAZOL

Physiological quality of big white ginger seed rhizomes during the storage with wax coating and paclobutrazol applications


Oleh : Devi Rusmin1), MR Suhartanto2), S Ilyas2), D Manohara1) dan E Widajati2)

1) Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.pertanian.go.id

rdevirusmin@yahoo.com

tantosuhartanto12@yahoo.co.id

2) Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura-Institute Pertanian Bogor

Jalan Meranti, Kampus Darmaga, Bogor

(diterima 27 November 2014, direvisi 09 Januari 2015, disetujui 17 Maret 2015)

ABSTRAK

Rimpang benih jahe putih besar tidak dapat disimpan lama karena mudah berkerut dan bertunas. Untuk meningkatkan daya simpan benih jahe telah dilaksanakan percobaan yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelapisan lilin dengan aplikasi Paclobutrazol (PBZ) terhadap perubahan mutu fisiologis rimpang benih JPB selama penyimpanan. Percobaan dilaksanakan di kamar kaca dan Laboratorium Teknologi Benih, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat sejak Januari sampai September 2014. Percobaan disusun dalam rancangan petak terbagi dengan tiga ulangan. Sebagai petak utama adalah dua suhu ruang simpan (1) (26-280C) (RH 70-80%) dan (2) (20-220C) (RH 65-75%), sebagai anak petak adalah perlakuan benih (1) kontrol (tanpa bahan pelapis lilin); (2) pelapisan lilin + PBZ 0 ppm, (3) pelapisan lilin + PBZ 500 ppm; (4) pelapisan lilin + PBZ 1.000 ppm; dan (5) pelapisan lilin + PBZ 1.500 ppm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi pelapisan lilin dengan aplikasi PBZ sampai 1.500 ppm belum mampu menekan penyusutan bobot rimpang benih JPB sampai empat bulan setelah simpan, baik pada pada suhu penyimpanan 26-280C maupun pada suhu 20-220C. Kombinasi pelapisan lilin dengan aplikasi PBZ 1.500 ppm pada suhu 20-220C mampu menekan persentase rimpang bertunas sampai tiga bulan simpan dan menekan laju respirasi sampai empat bulan.

Kata kunci: Zingiber officinale, pelapisan lilin, paclobutrazol, penyimpanan, mutu fisiologis

ABSTRACT

Seed rhizomes of big white ginger (BWG) have short storability, because they shrivel and sprout easily during the storage. To improve seed storability, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of wax coating with Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application to the physiological quality of ginger seed rhizomes during the storage. The experiment was conducted at green house and Seed Technology Laboratory of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute from January to September 2014. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Main plot were two storage temperature (1) 26-280C (T1), and (2) 20-220C (T2). Sub plot were five seed treatments (1) control (without wax coating), (2) wax coating + PBZ 0 ppm, (3) wax coating + PBZ 500 ppm, (4) wax coating + PBZ 1,000 ppm and (5) wax coating + PBZ 1,500 ppm. The results indicated that the combination of wax coating with PBZ applications up to 1,500 ppm have no significant effect to reduce weight loss of seed rhizomes up to four months after storage (MAS) on both temperature treatments . However, the combination of wax coating and PBZ 1,500 ppm at 20-220C was able to reduce the percentage of sprouted-seed rhizome up to 3 MAS and reduced respiration rate up to 4 MAS.

Key words: Zingiber officinale, wax coating, paclobutrazol, storage, physiological quality

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