Respon Pemupukan Terhadap Pertumbuhan, Produksi dan Mutu Herba Meniran (Phyllantus niruri) Response of fertilizer on growth and quality of Phyllantus niruri

RESPON PEMUPUKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU HERBA MENIRAN (Phyllantus niruri)

Response of fertilizer on growth and quality of Phyllantus niruri

Oleh : Setiawan dan Mono Rahardjo

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.pertanian.go.id

setiawan475@litbang.pertanian.go.id

(diterima 16 Mei 2014, direvisi 14 Agustus 2014, disetujui 28 November 2014)

ABSTRAK

Meniran (Phyllantus niruri L.) merupakan tanaman liar berkhasiat obat, bahan bakunya sebagian besar diperoleh secara menambang. Pemupukan pada tanaman meniran dalam rangka meningkatkan produktivitas dan mutu belum banyak dilakukan. Percobaan bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pupuk terhadap pertumbuhan dan mutu herba meniran. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Cimanggu dari Januari sampai Juni 2013. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok empat ulangan dengan delapan perlakuan pemupukan. Perlakuan pemupukan terdiri dari (1) kontrol (tanpa pupuk), (2) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang, (3) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+25 kg ha-1 Urea+25 kg ha-1 SP-36+25 kg ha-1 KCl, (4) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+50 kg ha-1 Urea+50 kg ha-1 SP-36+50 kg ha-1 KCl, (5) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+75 kg ha-1 +75 kg ha-1 SP-36+75 kg ha-1 KCl, (6) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl, (7) 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl, dan (8) 125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi simplisia kering tertinggi (265 kg ha-1) diperoleh pada perlakuan pemupukan 20 t ha-1 pupuk kandang+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl. Mutu simplisia yang dihasilkan telah memenuhi standar MMI, walaupun pemupukan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap mutu simplisia. Untuk menghasilkan simplisia kering 265 kg ha-1, diperlukan 5,697 kg ha-1 N, 0.477 kg ha-1 P, dan 11,368 kg ha-1 K. Secara kualitatif, kandungan metabolit sekunder alkaloid, tanin, saponin, flavonoid, fenolik, triterpenoid, dan glikosida simplisia meniran tidak berbeda nyata pada semua perlakuan pemupukan.

Kata kunci: Phyllantus niruri, pemupukan, produksi, mutu simplisia

ABSTRACT

Phyllantus niruri L. is medicinal plant which is mostly obtained by gathering from wild, thus there was no information related to its cultivation technology. The research was aimed to know the effect of fertilizers to growth and quality of P. niruri herbage. The study was conducted at Cimanggu Research Installation from January to June 2013. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Eight fertilizer treatments tested were : (1) control, (2) 20 t ha-1 manure, (3) 20 t ha-1 manure+25 kg ha-1 Urea+25 kg ha-1 SP-36+25 kg ha-1 KCl, (4) 20 t ha-1 manure+50 kg ha-1 Urea+50 kg ha-1 SP-36+50 kg ha-1 KCl, (5) 20 t ha-1 manure+75 kg ha-1 Urea+75 kg ha-1 SP-36+75 kg ha-1 KCl, (6) 20 t ha-1 manure+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl, (7) 20 t ha-1 manure+125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl, and (8) 125 kg ha-1 Urea+125 kg ha-1 SP-36+125 kg ha-1 KCl. The result showed the highest dry weight (265 kg ha-1) was produced at 20 t ha-1 manure+100 kg ha-1 Urea+100 kg ha-1 SP-36+100 kg ha-1 KCl. The quality of herbage fulfilled MMI standard, although the fertilization did not significantly affect the quality. Nutrient requirement to produce 265 kg ha-1 dry herb was 5.697 kg ha-1 N, 0.477 kg ha-1 P, and 11.368 kg ha-1 K. Fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect secondary metabolite content such as alkaloid, tannin, saponin, flavonoid, phenolic, triterpenoid and glycoside .
Key words: Phyllantus niruri, fertilizer, productivity, quality of simplicia

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