Stabilitas Hasil dan Mutu Somaklon Harapan Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) pada Tiga Agroekologipromising patchouli somaclones (Pogostemon cablin Benth) at three agroecology

STABILITAS HASIL DAN MUTU SOMAKLON HARAPAN NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth) PADA TIGA AGROEKOLOGI

Yield stability and quality of five promising patchouli somaclones (Pogostemon cablin Benth) at three agroecology

Oleh : Amalia, Nursalam Sirait dan Endang Hadipoentyanti

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.pertanian.go.id

amalia_achi@yahoo.co.id

(diterima 02 Desember 2014, direvisi 21 Januari 2015, disetujui 22 April 2015)

ABSTRAK

Nilam merupakan tanaman penghasil minyak atsiri, oleh sebab itu produksi, kadar dan mutu minyak merupakan faktor penting yang menetukan keunggulan suatu varietas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui stabilitas hasil dan mutu lima somaklon harapan nilam di tiga agroekologi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Banten (100 m dpl), Kuningan (400 m dpl) dan Purwokerto (600 m dpl) selama dua tahun (2011 sampai 2012). Somaklon harapan A, B, C, D, E dan varietas Sidikalang sebagai pembanding ditanam dengan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) empat ulangan. Data perbedaan lima somaklon dianalisa menggunakan uji Duncan pada taraf lima persen. Stabilitas hasil dianalisa berdasarkan metode Eberhart dan Russell. Parameter yang diamati adalah produksi terna (basah dan kering angin), produksi minyak, kadar minyak dan mutu minyak (kadar patchouli alkohol). Hasil penelitian diperoleh somaklon harapan nilam A dan E yang stabil pada hasil terna, kadar minyak dan mutu minyak serta mampu beradaptasi pada semua tempat pengujian. Somaklon harapan nilam A unggul pada produksi terna basah per tahun 36,62 t ha-1, produksi terna kering angin per tahun 12,67 t ha-1, produksi minyak per tahun 356,37 kg ha-1, kadar minyak 2,85%, serta kadar patchouli alkohol 32,53%. Somaklon harapan nilam E unggul pada produksi terna basah per tahun 37,73 t ha-1, produksi terna kering angin per tahun 12,56 t ha-1, produksi minyak per tahun 343,22 kg ha-1, kadar minyak 2,78%, kadar patchouli alkohol 32,31%. Perbedaan somaklon harapan A dan E terletak pada bentuk daunnya. Somaklon harapan A mempunyai bentuk pangkal daun tumpul (obtusus), ujung daun runcing-tumpul (acutus-obtusus) serta tepi daun bergerigi tumpul (crenatus). Somaklon harapan E mempunyai bentuk pangkal daun runcing (acutus), ujung daun runcing (acutus) serta tepi daun bergerigi tajam ganda (biserratus).

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, variasi somaklonal, hasil, mutu, adaptasi

ABSTRACT

Patchouli is an essential oil plant, therefore the production, content and quality of essensial oil is to be determined the benefits of a variety. The objective of the research was to evaluate morphological characters, yield potency and quality of five promising numbers at three agroecology. The research was conducted at three agroecology i.e Banten (100 m dpl), Kuningan (400 m dpl) and Purwokerto (600 m dpl) for two years (2011 until 2012). Somaclones A, B, C, D, E and F Sidikalang variety as a control planted in Randomized Block Design with four replications. Data were analized by using were DMRT at five percent. Analysis of the stability was performed using the method of Eberhart and Russell. Parameters observed were morphological characters, herbs production, oil content and oil quality (patchouli alcohol). The results showed that somaclone A and E were stable on yield, oil content and oil quality, and be able to adapt at all locations. Somaclone A was found to be excellent in fresh herb production per year 36.62 t ha-1, the production of dried herb per year 12.67 t ha-1, oil production per year 356.37 kg ha-1, oil content 2.85%, level of patchouli alcohol 32.53%. Somaclone E excellence in fresh herb production per year 37.73 t ha-1, the production of dried herb per year 12.56 t ha-1, oil production per year 343.22 kg ha-1, oil content 2.78%, Patchouli alcohol content 32.31%. Differences between somaclone A and E was found in the shape of its leaves. Somaclone A has a blunt shape of the leaf base (obtusus),the tip of a blunt-pointed leaves (acutus-obtusus) and blunt edge serrated leaves (crenatus). Somaclone E has a tapered shape of the leaf base (acutus), a pointed leaf tips (acutus) and double sharply serrated leaf margins (biserratus).

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, somaclonal variation, yield, adaptation

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