Keragaan Karakter Morfologi, Hasil dan Mutu Enam Aksesi Jahe Putih Kecil di Tiga Agroekologi Berbeda

KERAGAAN KARAKTER MORFOLOGI, HASIL DAN MUTU ENAM AKSESI JAHE PUTIH KECIL DI TIGA AGROEKOLOGI BERBEDA

Morphological characteristics, yield and quality of six small white ginger accessions in three different agroecology

Oleh : Cheppy Syukur, Muhammad Yusron, dan Octivia Trisilawati

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.pertanian.go.id
(diterima 25 Maret 2014, direvisi 12 November 2014, disetujui 16 Februari 2015)

ABSTRAK

Jahe merupakan tanaman yang memerlukan lahan subur dan pupuk dosis tinggi untuk menghasilkan rimpang yang optimal. Ketersediaan lahan subur semakin terbatas, sedangkan harga pupuk semakin tinggi, sehingga diperlukan varietas jahe yang toleran ditanam di lahan marginal dengan input pupuk rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan keragaan karakter morfologi, hasil dan mutu aksesi jahe putih kecil pada budidaya dengan input pupuk rendah, atau tumbuh baik pada kondisi lahan marginal. Evaluasi plasma nutfah jahe toleran lahan marginal di lakukan di Kabupaten Lebak (Banten), Kulonprogo (Yogyakarta) dan Bantul (Yogyakarta). Bahan tanaman yang digunakan enam aksesi jahe putih kecil (JPK), menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok diulang empat kali. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap karakter pertumbuhan tanaman (populasi tanaman, tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan, jumlah daun, panjang daun, lebar daun, diameter batang) dan produksi rimpang segar serta kadar gingerol. Data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA dilanjutkan dengan DMRT 0,5% apabila berbeda nyata. Hasil evaluasi keenam aksesi yang ditanam di lahan marginal dengan pemupukan dosis rendah, menunjukkan respon yang berbeda pada fase pertumbuhan maupun produksi. Aksesi 02 menunjukkan karakter diameter batang yang stabil di tiga lokasi, sedangkan aksesi lainnya tidak stabil. Aksesi 04 menunjukkan stabilitas pada karakter produksi rimpang segar dan kadar gingerol di tiga lokasi. Aksesi 04 menghasilkan bobot rimpang segar tertinggi (546,92 g rumpun-1) dan kadar gingerol lebih dari 1%, sehingga aksesi 04 berpotensi untuk dikembangkan di lahan marginal dengan input pupuk rendah.

Kata kunci: Zingiber officinale, pertumbuhan, produksi, mutu, lahan marginal

ABSTRACT

Ginger requires fertile land and high doses of fertilizer to produce rhizome optimally. The availability of fertile land is limited, while fertilizer price is getting expensive. Therefore, it is necessary to find ginger variety tolerant to be planted in infertile land with low doses of fertilizer. The research was aimed to evaluate morphological characteristics, yield and quality of six accessions of small white ginger (SWG) cultivated in marginal land with low doses fertilizer. The evaluation of six accessions of SWG was conducted in Lebak (Banten), Kulonprogo (Yogyakarta) and Bantul (Yogyakarta), arranged in randomized block design with four replications. Parameters observed were plant growth (plant population, plant height, number of tiller, number of leaves, leaf width, leaf length, stem diameter), fresh weight of rhizome and gingerol content. Data was analyzed with ANOVA, followed by DMRT 0.5% test if the results were significantly different. The six accessions of SWG planted in marginal land with low doses of fertilizer, showed varied response on plant growth, yield and quality parameters. Accession 02 revealed stability in stem diameter character in three locations, while the other five accessions were unstable. Accession 04 indicated stability in rhizome fresh weight and gingerol content characters in three locations. The rhizome fresh weight of 04 accession was the highest (546.92 g clump-1) with gingerol content more than 1%. Thus, accession 04 had potency to be planted in marginal land with low doses fertilizer.

Key words: Zingiber officinale, growth, production, quality, marginal land

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