TEKNOLOGI BUDIDAYA TANAMAN OBAT KUMIS KUCING, TEMPUYUNG, MENIRAN, ADAS DAN TIMI

TEKNOLOGI BUDIDAYA TANAMAN OBAT KUMIS KUCING, TEMPUYUNG, MENIRAN, ADAS DAN TIMI

M. Rahardjo, I. Darwati, Rosita SMD, H. Nurhayati, E. Rini Pribadi, dan Setiawan

ABSTRAK

Kebutuhan bahan baku tanaman obat diperkirakan terus meningkat. Bahan baku obat tradisional lebih kurang 80% diperoleh bukan dari kegiatan budidaya, sehingga bahan baku tersebut kualitasnya rendah dan jumlahnya terbatas. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya teknologi budidaya yang dapat meningkatkan jumlah dan kualitas bahan baku. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memperoleh teknologi budidaya tanaman kumis kucing, meniran, tempuyung, adas dan timi dengan input rendah tetapi menghasilkan bahan baku terstandar. Lokasi penelitian teknologi budidaya tanaman adas dan timi dilakukan di kebun perconaan Manoko dengan ketinggian tempat lebih kurang 1400 m dpl. Lokasi penelitian teknologi buididaya tanaman kumis kucing, meniran, dan tempuyung di dataran rendah, di kebun percobaan Sukamulya. Perlakuan pupuk organik 40 t/ha menghasilkan simplisia daun kumis kucing (27,59 kwt/ha) meningkat sebesar 5,78 kwt/ha, namun tidak diikuti oleh kadar sinensetin yang tinggi. Pemupukan organik 40 t/ha  ditambah pupuk Urea, SP36 dan KCl masing-masing 25 kg/ha menghasilkan simplia daun (26.93 kwt/ha) tetapi diikuti oleh kadar sinensetin yang tinggi. Kadar bahan aktif quersetin pada simplisia tempuyung tertinggi diperoleh pada perlakuan 20 t/ha pupuk organik dan perlakuan 20 t/ha pupuk organik ditambah masing-masing 25kg/ha pupuk Urea, SP36 dan KCl. Hasil terna meniran pada perlakuan pupuk Urea, SP36 dan KCl masing-masing 125kg/ha meningkat 78%, pada perlakuan pupuk organik 20 t/ha ditambah masing-masing pupuik Urea, SP36 dan KCl 100kg/ha meningkat 65%, dan pada perlakuan 20 t/ha pupuk organik meningkat 35%, dibandingkan dengan perlakuan tidak dipupuk. Hasil biji +tangkai adas tertinggi (9,10 kwt/ha)pada perlakuan pemupukan 20 t/ha pupuk organik ditambah masing-masing 75 kg/ha Urea, SP36 dan KCl. Produksi terna tanaman timi, kadar atsiri dan thymol mencapai optimal pada perlakuan pupuk 20 t/ha yang ditambah masing-masing 75 kg/ha pupuk Urea, SP36 dan KCl.

Kata kunci :Tanaman obat, pemupukan, kualitas, bahan aktif, produksi

ABSTRACT

The demand of raw material from medicinal plants is predicted to increase yearly.  However, 80% of the material was harvested from non-cultivated plants, resulted in low quality and quantity. Therefore, cultivation technology is necessary to increase the quality and quantity of raw material. The research aimed to obtain low-input technology cultivation for Java tea plant (Orthosipon aristatus), black catnip (Phyllanthus niruri), perennial sow thistle (Sonchus arvensis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)and thyme (Thymus vulgaris)to produce standardized raw materials. Fennel and thyme were cultivated at Manoko Research Installlation, Lembang at 1400 m asl, whereas Java tea plant, black catnip andperennial sow thistlewere planted in lowland at Sukamulya Research Installation, Sukabumi. The application of 40t/ha organic fertilizer yielded 27.59 quintal/ha of java tea plants simplisia,but had lower sinensetin content than organic fertilizer 40 t/ha + 25 kg/ha urea + 25 kg/ha SP36 + 25 kg/ha KCl treatment which produced 26.93 quintal/ha leaves simplicia. As for perennial sow thistle, both treatments of 20 t/ha organic fertilizer and organic fertilizer 20 t/ha + 25 kg/ha urea + 25 kg/ha SP36 + 25 kg/ha KCl gave highest quersetin content. Inorganic fertilizer application to black catnip increased the yield. The application of 125 kg/ha urea + 125 kg/ha SP36 + 125 kg/ha KCl gave yield 78% higher than control (no fertilizer application), whereas the yield of organic fertilizer application of 20 t/ha + 100 kg/ha urea + 100 kg/ha SP36 + 25kg/ha KCl was 65% higher than control and application of 20 t/ha organic fertilizer alone was only capable to increase 35% of yield. The highest yield of fennel (9.10 quintal/ha) was shown at treatment of organic fertilizer 20 t/ha + 75 kg/ha urea+  75 kg/ha SP36 +75 kg/ha KCl.  As for thyme, the yield, essential oil content and thymol content were optimum at the application of organic fertilizer 20 t/ha + 75 kg/ha urea + 75kg/ha SP36 +75 kg/ha KCl.

Keywords : medicinal plants, fertilizing, quality, active content, yield

Download pdf,

2 thoughts on “TEKNOLOGI BUDIDAYA TANAMAN OBAT KUMIS KUCING, TEMPUYUNG, MENIRAN, ADAS DAN TIMI

  • Minggu Juli 28th, 2019 at 04:49
    Permalink

    Thanks for your post. I also believe laptop computers have become more and more popular lately, and now in many cases are the only kind of computer included in a household. This is because at the same time that they are becoming more and more reasonably priced, their computing power keeps growing to the point where they are as powerful as personal computers from just a few years ago.

    Reply
    • Senin Juli 29th, 2019 at 04:27
      Permalink

      Thank you for your visiting to website Balittro.

      Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *