INDUKSI KETAHANAN JAHE PUTIH KECIL TERHADAP BERCAK DAUN MELALUI APLIKASI SILIKAT DAN PEMUPUKAN INORGANIK

INDUKSI KETAHANAN JAHE PUTIH KECIL TERHADAP BERCAK DAUN MELALUI APLIKASI SILIKAT DAN PEMUPUKAN INORGANIK

Dyah Manohara, Dono Wahyuno, Sutrasman dan Zulhisnain

ABSTRAK

Penyakit bercak daun pada tanaman jahe (Zingiber officinale Rosc), saat ini termasuk kendala utama dalam budidaya jahe. Empat jenis jamur yang  dilaporkan menyebabkan kerusakan pada daun tanaman jahe di Indonesia, yaitu Phyllosticta, Pyricularia, Cercospora dan Phakopsora. Serangan jamur tersebut dapat terjadi sejak tanaman muda (2-3 bulan), menimbulkan gejala bercak daun yang dapat berkembang ke seluruh permukaan daun sehingga daun-daun menjadi kering.Jamur patogen tersebut telah ditemukan disentra produksi jahe dengan tingkat serangan penyakit rata-rata 20%.Usaha pengendalian penyakit bercak daun dilakukan melalui perbaikan teknik budidaya untuk meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman jahe yaitu dengan pemupukan inorganik dan aplikasi fungisida sintetik (Mancozeb). Hasil penelitian lapang di kebun percobaan Cicurug, aksesi jahe JPK H dengan perlakuan pupuk KCl 400 kg/ha, MgSO4 300 kg/ha , urea 300 kg/ha dan SP 36 250 kg/ha dan aplikasi fungisida setiap dua minggu dapat menurunkan persentase serangan bercak daun sekitar 37,61 – 49,51% dibandingkan pemupukan P2 (KCl 300 kg/ha, MgSO4 100 kg/ha, urea 300 kg/ha dan SP 36 250 kg/ha) dan SOP Balittro,  dengan produksi rimpang antara tertinggi yaitu 691, 58 gr/rumpun (86% lebih tinggi dibandingkan SOP Balittro). Kegiatan penelitian penambahan silikat disamping pupuk tersebut masih berlangsung sampai pertengahan tahun 2014.

Kata kunci:  Jahe, bercak daun, silikat.

ABSTRACT

Leaf spot disease on ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) is becoming the destructive disease following a bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum).  Some fungal pathogen is found associated with leaf spot disease, there are Phyllosticta, Pyricularia, Cercospora and Phakopsora.  The fungal infection may occur from the young plants (about 2-3 months) causing leaf spot symptoms and then developing to entire leaves, so that leaves dried and dead. The fungal pathogens have been found in all centre production areas of ginger, with an average of leaf spot disease intensity about 20%.  Controlling the disease is conducted through improving the cultivation technique in order to increase the plant immunity, such as applying the inorganic fertilizer combined with a fungicide (Mancozeb) applied every two weeks.  The research activity was carried out in Cicurug experimental garden.  The result shown that inorganic fertilizer consisted of  KCl, 400 kg/ha, MgSO4 300 kg/ha, urea 300 kg/ha and SP 36 250 kg/ha combined with applying fungicide against ginger (JPK H), decreased the disease severity about 37,61 – 49,51%, and produced the highest yield (691,58 g/plant) compared than P2 fertilizer (KCl 300 kg/ha, MgSO4 100 kg/ha, urea 300 kg/ha and SP 36 250 kg/ha) and Standard Operational (SOP) of Balittro. The activity of induction resistance of ginger through the application of silicate is ongoing

Key words:  ginger, leaf spot disease, silicate.

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