FORMULASI BIO ADITIF MINYAK ATSIRI UNTUK PENGHEMATAN BAHAN BAKAR MINYAK

FORMULASI BIO ADITIF MINYAK ATSIRI UNTUK PENGHEMATAN BAHAN BAKAR MINYAK

Ma‘mun, Sriyadi, H. Mulyana dan S. Suhirman

ABSTRAK

 

Minyak atsiri mengandung komponen kimia hidrokarbon rantai cabang dan hidrokarbon oksigen bahan bakar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efisiensi formula bio aditif berbahan baku minyak atsiri untuk meningkatakan efisiensi proses pembakaran bahan bakar bensin maupun solar. Tahap penelitian terdiri karakterisasi minyak sebagai bahan baku bio aditif, perbaikan formula bio aditif dan pengujian kinerja bio aditif pada mesin berbahan bakar bensin dan solar. Dirancang dua formula bio aditif, masing-masing untuk bahan bakar bensindan solar. Pengujian dilakukan pada mesin kendaraan beroda dua. Parameter yang diukur adalah kerja torsi motor, daya motor dan konsumsi bahan bakar spesifik serta emisi gas buang dan pengujian lapangan (uji jalan). Dua formula bio aditif yang dirancang untuk bensin dan solar terbukti dapat meningkatkan kinerja motor. Hal ini dicirikan dengan meningkatkan angka oktana sebesar 0,9 dan menurunnya kadar gum menjadi 0,6%. Penambahan bio aditif ke dalam solar meningkatkan angka cetana sebesar 3,1, peningkatan torsi dan daya motor pada bahan bakar solar, serta mengurangi konsumsi bahan bakar. Penambahan formula bioaditif ke dalam bahan bakar memenuhi standar mutu Direktorat Jendral Minyak dan Gas. Hasil uji emisi menunjukkan penurunan konsentrasi gas CO, CO2 dan HC dalam gas buang hasil pembakaran bensin dan solar yang ditambah formula bio adifit. Dengan demikian, penggunaan formula bioaditif direkomendasikan untuk menghemat bahan bakar sekaligus mengurangi cemaran gas bercun dari gas pembuangan kendaraan bermotor.

Kata kunci: Minyak atsiri, bio aditif, bahan bakar minyak (bensin, solar), pembakaran

ABSTRACT

Essential oils contain chemical components of branched chain hydrocarbon and oxygenate hydrocarbons that can improve combustion mechanism of gasoline and diesel fuels of the engine. The study was aimed to improve formulation of gasoline and diesel bio additives to increase their efficiency of combustion of gasoline and diesel fuels. The study consisted of characterization of essential oils, formulation of bio additive based essential oil, and filed test (road test) of gasoline and diesel fuels supplemented wth bio additives. Two bio additive formulas were made for gasoline and diesel fuel, respectively. Field test was conducted on road by using motor cycle engines. Parameters evaluated in the field testing were fuel consumption efficiency and gasses emission. The results showed two bio additive were made for gasoline and diesel, respectively. Bio additive supplementation increased octane number by 0.9 and reduced gum deposited by 0,6%. The bio additive formulas satisfied the regulation of the Directorate General of Oil and Gas. Diesel bio additive formula also increased octane number by 3.1, increased torque and motor power of diesel fuel, reduced specific fuel consumption and met the nasional standard. Exhaust emission was safe for both gasoline and diesel fuel additives as indicated in lower CO, CO2 and HC in exhaust gasses. Therefore, the use of these bio additive is recommended to increase efficiency of gasoline and diesel consumption as well as reduce toxict gasses from fuels.

Keyword: Essential oils, Bioadditive, fuel oil (gasoline, diesel), combustion

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