PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI DAN AGENSIA HAYATI UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENGGEREK BATANG CENGKEH

PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI DAN AGENSIA HAYATI UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENGGEREK BATANG CENGKEH

M. Rizal, T. L. Mardiningsih, M. Darwis, T. E. Wahyono, C. Sukmana dan E. Sugandi

ABSTRAK

Serangga penggerek adalah salah satu hama penting pada tanman cengkeh yang dapat mematikan pohon. Penelitian berujuan untuk mengetahui keefektifan pestisida nabati dan agens hayati untuk mengendalikan serangan hama penggerek batang cengkeh. Penelitian terdiri dari 2 sub kegiatan, yaitu pengujian pestisida nabati dan agensia hayati jamur entomopatogen Beauveria bassiana. Untuk pestisida nabati, penelitian dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK), 8 perlakuan, 5 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah 6 jenis pestisida nabati yaitu CEES (P1), CEKAM (P2), NEEM PLUS (P3), BIOTRIS (P4), minyak cengkeh (P5), Minyak serai wangi (P6), pestisida kimia (P7), dan air sebagai pembanding. Penelitian pemanfaatan agensia hayati B. bassiana dilakukan dengan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 6 perlakuan, 4 ulangan. Perlakuan adalah 4 strain B. bassiana, pestisida kimia dan air sebagai pembanding. Aplikasi pestisida nabati dilakukan dengan meresapkan larutan pestisida ke sepotong kapas yang kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam lubang gerek pada batang, cabang dan ranting cengkeh. Khusus untuk formula pasta (CEES, CEKAM), pestisida nabati disemprotkan dengan pompa hidrolik ke dalam lubang gerek yang kemudian ditutup dengan sepotong kapas. Setelah itu semua lubang gerek ditutup dengan pasak kayu. Efektifitas pestisida diukur dengan mengamati kemunculan lubang gerek aktif di sekitar lubang gerek yang telah diperlakukan. Larutan pestisida dianggap efektif membunuh penggerek cengkeh apabila tidak muncul lubang gerek baru yang aktif yang ditandai oleh keberadaan bekas gerekan dan kotoran larva penggerek. Pengamatan dilakukan 1 x seminggu selama 4 bulan. Jamur B. bassiana  yang sudah diformulasikan disemprotkan ke lubang gerekan dengan menggunakan metode injeksi, setelah itu ditutup dengan menggunakan lilin. Pengamatan dilakukan satu minggu setelah aplikasi dengan menghitung jumlah gerekan aktif dan munculnya gerekan baru pada setiap pohon yang diperlakukan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan minyak serai wangi, formula CEKAM dan NEEMPLUS ke dalam lubang gerek serangga di dalam batang cengkeh kemudian lubang gerek ditutup dengan lilin atau kapas, mampu mematikan serangga penggerek lebih dari 70% sampai empat bulan setelah aplikasi. Mortalitas penggerek akibat perlakuan B. bassiana strain BB Ed1 mencapai 89,5%. Aplikasi kedua formula pestisida nabati dan B. bassiana strain BB Ed1 diikuti penutupan lubang tidak merusak jaringan batang tanaman cengkeh sehingga dapat direkomendasikan. Aplikasi sebaiknya dilakukan setiap dua minggu selama dua bulan berturut-turut.

Kata kunci: Pestisida nabati, agensia hayati, tanaman cengkeh, penggerek batang, pengendalian hama

ABSTRACT

Ste borer is one of the most important pests on clove that can cause tree died. The study was aimed to evaluate the potential of botanical pesticides and bio agens in controlling stem borer in cloves. The research was conducted at entomological screen house of Indonesian spices  and medicinal crops Research Institute (ISMECRI) in Bogor, from January through December 2012, and at farmers plantation at Purosari Village, Leuwiliang District, Bogor Regency. West Java Povince. Research consist of 2 experimets for testing botanicalpesticides and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana. Randomized Block Design, consisting of 8 treatments and repeated five times was used in botanical pesticides trial experiment. The treatments were 6 formulas of botanical pesticides e.i CEES (P1), CEKAM (P2), NEEMPLUS (P3), BIOTRIS (P4), cove oil (P5), citronella oil (P6), chemical insecticide acephate as a comparison and water as a control. Research utilization of biological agents B. bassiana done in randomized block design (RBD) with 6 treatments in repeated 4 times. Treatments were 4 strains of B. bassiana, chemical pesticides and water for comparison. Applications for botanical pesticide were made by soaking pesticide solution into a piece of cotton which is then inserted into a drill hole in the trunk, branches and twigs cloves. Especially for pasta formula (CEES, CEKAM), botanical pesticides sprayed with hydraulic pump into drill holes were then covered with a piece of cotton. After that all drill holes covered with wooden pegs. Effectiveness was measured by observing the emergence of new active drill hole around the treated drill holes. Pesticide solution was considered effective if there were no newly drill holes appear around the treated holes characterized by the presence of trace impurities hoist and borer larvae. Observations were made 1 x week for 4 months. Fungus B. bassiana already formulated was sprayed into the hole using the hoist injection, after which it closed using candles. Observations were made one week after the application by counting the number of active hoist and the emergence of new hoist each tree is treated. The results showed that 3 formula i.e citronella oil, CEKAM and NEEMPLUS were capable of causing >70% mortality, respectively citronella oil by 88.33%, CEKAM by 81.57% and NEEM PLUS by 73.33% at week 16th after application. Biological agents fungus B. bassiana strain BB ED1 could hinder the development of stem borer cloves with mortality reached 89.5% at week 7th after application. The use of stem injection system, followed by closing the hole with wax does not damage tissue of clove plant stems, so it can be recommended as a method of application botanical pesticide and biological agents B. bassiana for controlling clove stem bores. Applications should be in the interval of 2 weeks for 2 months.

Keywords: botanical pesticides, biological control agents, cloves, stem borers, pest control

Download pdf,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *