UJI ADAPTASI LENGKUAS DAN LEMPUYANG DI BERBAGAI AGROEKOLOGI

UJI ADAPTASI LENGKUAS DAN LEMPUYANG DI BERBAGAI AGROEKOLOGI

 

Sri Wahyuni. N. Bermawie., S. Purwiyanti dan D. Seswita

 

ABSTRAK

Uji adaptasi lengkuas dan lempuyang, masing-masing dilakukan di tiga lokasi. Pengujian telah memasuki musim tanam kedua. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap parameter pertumbuhan (tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan, jumlah daun), produksi rimpang, ukuran rimpang (panjang, lebar, jumlah propagul), kadar minyak atsiri, dan komposisi kimia rimpang serta mutu proksimat pada lempuyang. Pertumbuhan dan produksi lengkuas dilakukan pada berbagai tingkatan umur (8,10, dan 12 BST). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pertumbuhan tanaman lempuyang di tiga lokasi pengujian cukup baik. Pertumbuhan tanaman umur 6 BST memperlihatkan kisaran tinggi tanaman 60 – 150 cm, jumlah anakan 4- 10 batang, jumlah daun per batang 15 – 28 buah, panjang dan 20 – 35 cm dan lebar daun 4 – 7 cm. Panen rimpang dilakukan umur 9-10 bulan setelah tanam.Produksi tanaman tertinggi adalah LP6 (300-1000 g/rumpun), kemudian LP 13 (500-800 g/rumpun).Mutu proksimat memenuhi standar MMI dengan kisaran kadar minyak atsiri 0,7 – 1,4%, kadar pati 40-50%, kadar sari air 17-22%, kadar sari ethanol 7-10% dan kadar serat 12-22%. Mutu kandungan kimia utama pada aksesi yang sama yang ditanam di lokasi yang berbeda agak bervariasi namun komponen utama tertinggi tetap Zerumbone.Pertumbuhan tanaman lengkuas pada umur 8,10,12 BST memperlihatkan pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan dan jumlah daun meningkat seiring meningkatnya umur tanaman. Demikian pula dengan produksi dan ukuran rimpang basah tanaman per rumpun. Tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan per rumpun, dan jumlah daun per batang pada 8 BST adalah 65 – 130 cm, 10 – 39 buah, 8-11 buah dan pada umur 12 BST adalah 90-142 cm, 5-50 buah, 5-10 buah. Panen rimpang lengkuas umur 8 BST diperoleh ukuran rimpang berat rimpang, panjang rimpang, lebar rimpang, dan jumlah propagul adalah 0.3 -2,3 kg, 18-38 cm, 15-32 cm dan 10 – 38 buah, pada 12 BST 0.7 – 5 kg, 24-46 cm, 20-41 cm, dan 20-80 buah. Mutu kandungan kimia berdasarkan GCMS, pada aksesi yang sama pada lokasi yang berbeda mempunyai kandungan yang agak berbeda namun kandungan utama sama yaitu benzoic acid.

 

Kata kunci : Lempuyang, lengkuas, pertumbuhan tanaman, produksi, mutu.

 

ABSTRACT

 

Adaptation test of wild ginger and East Indian galangal were conducted at three locations. Wild ginger was tested at Karanganyar, Kulon Progo and Cibinong, while east Indian galangal was planted at Karanganyar, Kulon progo and Banten. It was already in second years plantation. Characters observed were plant growth (plant height, numbers of tillersa and numbers of leaves), rhizome yield, rhizome size (length, width and numbers of propagule), essential oil content and rhizome chemical compound based on GCMS, and for wild ginger, proximate quality also being tested. Growth and rhizome yield of East Indian galangal were carried out at 8,10 and 12 months after planting.  Result showed that growth of plant in the three locations was most similar. Wild ginger growth at 6 months after planting showed plant height, numbers of tillers and numbers of leaves were range from 60-150 cm, 4-10 tillers, 15-28 leaves and leaves length 20-35 cm, leaves width 4-7 cm. dry rhizome of wild ginger (simplisia ) quality was better than MMI. Essential oil content 0,7 – 1,4%, carbohydrate content 40-50%, extract soluble water 17-22%, extract soluble ethanol 7-10% and fiber content 12-22%. Chemical constituent of essential oil of the accession which planted on different location is slight different, but major component zerumbone is pior the higher.Growth of East Indian galangal at 8,10,12 months after planting was indicated that within increasing of ages were tend to improve, and so does the rhizome yield and size. At 8 months after planting, plant height, numbers of tillers and numbers of leaves were range from 65 – 130 cm, 10 – 39 tillers, 8-11 leaves and at 12 months after planting were 90-142 cm, 5-50 tillers, 5-10 leaves. Rhizome yield harvested at 8 months after planting was 0,3-2,3 kg/plant and the size were 18-38 cm of length, 15-32 cm in width, and 10 – 38 numbers of propagule. Moreover, rhizome yield harvested at 12 months after planting was 0,7-5,0kg/plant and the size were 24-46 cm of length, 20-41 cm in width, and 20 – 80 numbers of propagule. Essential oil content of rhizome was 0,20 – 0,90%. Chemical contituent from rhizome extract of the same accession which planted on different location was has variation but the main major component was benzoic acid.

 Keyword  : Zingiber aromaticum, Alpinia galangal, growth, yield, essential oil, chemical constituent.

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