PERBANYAKAN VEGETATIF TANAMAN JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale)

PERBANYAKAN VEGETATIF TANAMAN JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale)

O. Trisilawati, H. Nurhayati, Asmara, Kanda, Idham, N. Mahdi dan E. Sugiman

ABSTRAK

Salah satu usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman jambu mete adalah penggunaan teknik perbanyakan vegetatif dengan penyambungan agar dihasilkan benih sambungan yang bervigor tinggi melalui perbaikan teknik penyambungan dan penggunaan fungi mikoriza arbuskula. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan tanaman jambu mete hasil grafting di lapang dengan tingkat kompatibilitas ≥80, dan satu teknik optimalisasi grafting untuk mendapatkan benih jambu mete dengan vigor yang baik. Perbanyakan vegetatif tanaman jambu mete meliputi dua sub kegiatan, a). Pengujian Kompatibilitas Penyambungan Beberapa Varietas Unggul Jambu Mete dengan Batang Bawah Lokal Terpilih di KP. Cikampek menggunakan rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan yang di uji adalah 4 jenis jambu mete hasil grafting yaitu : (1) GF1 (Tanjungbunga + Meteor JK), (2) GF2 (Tanjung Bunga + B 02), (3) GF3 (Tiwatobi + Meteor JK), dan (4) GF4 (Ende + B O2). Parameter yang diamati meliputi data pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman (tinggi tanaman, diameter pangkal batang, diameter kanopi, jumlah cabang primer, sekunder dan tersier), kandungan klorofil daun, laju fotosintesa, kandungan hara N, P dan K daun serta kondisi iklim (curah hujan, suhu udara, dan kelembaban udara). b). Optimalisasi teknik penyambungan, akan dilaksanakan di laboratorium dan rumah kaca Balittro di Bogor dan KP. Cikampek. Perlakuan meliputi 2 faktor, faktor pertama adalah hormone tumbuh (air kelapa) yaitu :1). tanpa, 2). 20%, 3). 40%, dan 4). 60%. Faktor kedua adalah penggunaan FMA, yaitu : tanpa dan dengan FMA. Rancangan Lingkungan yang akan digunakan adalah acak lengkap, pola faktorial, diulang 3 kali. Parameter yang diamati meliputi data pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman yang terdiri dari tinggi tanaman, diameter pangkal batang, kondisi sambungan, kandungan klorofil daun, laju fotosintesa, kandungan hara N, P dan K daun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sampai tanaman berusia 15 bulan, tanaman jambu mete hasil sambungan dengan batang bawah dari Tanjung Bunga  dengan Meteor JK memperlihatkan keragaan tumbuh yang lebih baik, mempunyai jumlah cabang primer, kandungan klorofil, laju fotosintesa dan kandungan hara N, P, K, dan Ca tertinggi dibandingkan ketiga tanaman hasil sambungan lainnya. Hasil awal optimalisasi grafting, mendapatkan aplikasi FMA berpengaruh positif terhadap jumlah tanaman sambungan yang hidup dan pertumbuhan tanaman hasil sambungan.

Kata kunci: Anacardium occidentale, perbanyakan vegetatif, fungi mikoriza arbuskula

ABSTRACT

One attempt to improve productivity of cashew is vegetative propagation by grafting method and the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) resulting in high vigor grafting seeds. The aims of this study was to obtain grafted cashew with >80% compatibility in the field, and one appropriate grafting technique to get high vigor of cashew seed. 1) Vegetative propagation technique of cashew (Anacardium occidentale), consisted of two sub activities a) Compatibility testing of grafting between several superior variety of cashew as entress and root stock from elected local variety. The study was conducted in Cikampek research garden arranged randomized block design with 6 replications. The treatments tested are four method of grafting cashew : (1) GF1 (Tanjungbunga + Meteor JK), (2) GF2 (Tanjung Bunga + B 02), (3) GF3 (Tiwatobi + Meteor JK), dan (4) GF4 (Ende + B O2).  The parameter observed included vegetative plant growth (plant height; stem diameter; canopy diameter; number of primary, secondary and tertiery branches), chlorophyll content, N, P and K content in the leaves, photosynthesis rate and climatic condition (rainfall, air temperature and humidity); 2) Optimizing grafting technique in cashew, was conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse of ISMECRI Bogor and Cikampek. Experimental design was completely randomized design, factorial arrangement, with three replications. The treatment consisted of two factors, a) plant growth hormone 0, 20%, 40% and 60% of coconut water; b) the application of AMF, without and with AMF application. The parameters observed were vegetative plant (plant height, stem diameter), grafting condition, chlorophyll content, N, P and K  content in the leaves, and photosynthesis rate. The result showed that at 15 months after grafting, cashew plant resulted from Tanjung Bunga rootstock and the entress of Meteor JK (GF1) had better growth including the highest number of primary branches, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, and nutrient content of N, P, K and Ca. Preliminary result of grafting optimization showed the positive effect of AMF inoculation to the number of grown plant and the growth of grafting cashew.

Key words: Anacardium occidentale, vegetative propagation, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

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2 thoughts on “PERBANYAKAN VEGETATIF TANAMAN JAMBU METE (Anacardium occidentale)

  • Minggu Agustus 11th, 2019 at 06:01
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    • Senin Agustus 12th, 2019 at 07:09
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      Reply

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