EVALUASI PLASMAH NUTFAH TANAMAN OBAT (JPK, JM DAN TEMULAWAK) TOLERAN LAHAN MARJINAL DI TIGA AGROEKOLOGI

EVALUASI PLASMAH NUTFAH  TANAMAN OBAT (JPK, JM DAN TEMULAWAK) TOLERAN LAHAN MARJINAL DI TIGA AGROEKOLOGI

C. Syukur., I. Darwati., R. Bakti dan D. Surachman

ABSTRAK

Evaluasi plasma nutfah Tanaman Obat toleran lahan marjinal di lokasi Banten, Jawa Barat, Yogyakarta dan Jawa Tengah. Hasil evaluasi dari aksesi-aksesi di lahan marjinal dengan kondisi lahan kering dan kesuburan relative rendah dengan penambahan pupuk dosis rendah, menunjukkan respon aksesi yang berbeda-beda baik pada fase pertumbuhan tanaman maupun pada fase produksi. Pada fase pertumbuhan tanaman, dari enam aksesi yang dievaluasi hanya karakter diameter batang yang stabil di tiga lokasi yaitu aksesi 02, sedangkan aksesi lainnya turun-naik di setiap karakter. Pada fase produksi aksesi 04 stabil di tiga lokasi untuk karakter produksi rimpang segar dan kadar gingerol. Aksesi yang produksi rimpang segarnya tertinggi di tiga lokasi yaitu aksesi 04 dan 05 sebesar 546.92 gram perrumpun dan 540 gram perrumpun. Dari enam aksesi yang dievaluasi, hanya aksesi 04 yang memberikan respon lebih tinggi terhadap lingkungan lahan kering dan pemberian pupuk dosis rendah  dengan menghasilkan kadar gingerol lebih dari 1% baik di Banten, Kulonprogo maupun di Bantul. Hasil evaluasi aksesi jahe merah, menunjukkan adanya keseragaman antar aksesi dari karakter-karakter yang diamati kecuali jumlah anakan, tinggi batang dan diameter batang yang memiliki perbedaan yang cukup nyata antar aksesi. Keragaman yang rendah yaitu karakter tinggi tanaman (9.89%), jumlah daun (8.21%), panjang daun (6.48%), dan lebar daun (6.17%), sedangkan keragaman yang cukup besar di tampilkan pada karakter  tinggi batang (10,48%), jumlah anakan (14.91%) dan diameter batang (14.89%). Dari rata-rata pertumbuhan 7 aksesi temulawak di daerah marjinal 3 lokasi seperti Banten, Bantul dan Cibinong, penanaman di Banten memberikan jumlah anakan dan produksi rimpang tertinggi.

Kata kunci : Evaluasi, plasma nutfah jahe merah, jahe putih kecil, temulwak, produksi, mutu, lahan marjinal.

ABSTRAK

Evaluation of medicinal plants germplasm tolerant marginal land in Banten, West Java, Yogyakarta and Central Java. Plant material used 6 accession white little ginger (WLG), , 9 accessions of red ginger (RG),  and 6 accession of temulawak using randomized block design with  3 replications.  Evaluation results of those accessions  on marginal land with dry land conditions and low relative fertility by addition of fertilisers low dose, indicating the response of different accession both on plant growth phase and production phase. On plant growth phase, of six accessions were evaluated only the stem diameter of stable character in three locations, namely accession 02, whereas the other ascending accessions in each character. During the production phase of accession 04 stable in three locations for the fresh Rhizome yield characters and levels of gingerol. The fresh rhizome yield accession in three locations, namely the accession of 04 and 05 of 546.92 gram per clump and 540 grams per clump. Of the six accessions evaluated, only accessions 04 which provide higher response to the environment dry land and the granting of low-doses of fertilizer levels of gingerol by producing more than 1% in Bantul, Kulonprogo and Banten. Evaluation results of Red ginger accessions showed, a uniformity between different accessions of the observed characters except numbers of saplings, height stem and diameter of the trunk have enough real differences between accessions. The low diversity of plant height characters (9.89%), the number of leaves (8.21%),  leaf length  (6.48%), and the width of the leaf (6.17%), while the considerable diversity in the show on the character height rod (10.48%), the number of chicks (14.91%) and the diameter of the trunk (14.89%). The average growth of 7 accessions of temoelawak on marginal land (Banten, Bantul and Cibinong), the location of Banten showed the highest number of tiller and rhizome yield.

Key words: Germplasm, evaluation, red ginger, ginger small white, turmeric, production, quality, marginal land.

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