IDENTIFIKASI KOMPONEN KIMIA AKSESI RUMPUT KEBAR (Biophytum petersianum) ASAL PAPUA DAN JAWA. Identification of chemical component of kebar grass accession (Biophytum petersianum)from Papua and Java

IDENTIFIKASI KOMPONEN KIMIA AKSESI RUMPUT KEBAR (Biophytum petersianum)

ASAL PAPUA DAN JAWA

Identificationofchemical component of kebar grassaccession (Biophytum petersianum)from Papua and Java

Bagem Sembiring dan Ireng Darwati

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat 

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010 

 balittro@litbang.deptan.go.id     anna.sembiring@yahoo.com

(diterima 01 Nopember 2013, direvisi 12 Februari 2014, disetujui 30 April 2014)

ABSTRAK

Rumput kebar belum banyak dikenal orang, tetapi di Papua secara empiris digunakan sebagai penyubur kandungan. Senyawa aktif yang berperan sebagai obat maupun penyubur termasuk golongan steroid, saponin dan flavonoid. Bahan aktif merupakan metabolit sekunder, kandungannya bervariasi tergantung lingkungan tumbuh, waktu panen dan proses pengolahan. Tujuan penelitian adalah identifikasi mutu aksesi rumput kebar asal Papua, Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah untuk menghasilkan simplisia yang berkualitas. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Pengujian, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor pada tahun 2011. Bahan baku menggunakan rumput kebar asal Papua, Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah. Bagian tanaman yang diidentifikasi adalah secara keseluruhan. Rumput kebar dicuci bersih, ditiriskan, dikeringkan kemudian digiling. Serbuk yang diperoleh dianalisis mutunya dengan parameter meliputi : karakteristik mutu, skrining fitokimia, senyawa aktif, unsur mineral dan aktivitas antioksidan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan,  rumput kebar asal Papua, Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah  mengandung kadar sari air lebih besar dibandingkan kadar sari alkohol. Jumlah kadar sari air berkisar antara 11,57-11,73% dan kadar sari alkohol 10,29-10,55%. Rumput kebar mengandung senyawa kimia golongan alkaloid, saponin, tanin, fenolik, flavonoid, triterpenoid, steroid dan glikosida. Jumlah senyawa kimia yang terdeteksi pada aksesi rumput kebar asal Papua adalah sebanyak 15 komponen dan dari Jawa 14 komponen. Kadar unsur mineral rumput kebar meningkat sebesar 0,00-51,15% setelah difermentasi. Rumput kebar asal Papua memiliki daya aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan Jawa Barat maupun Jawa Tengah. Nilai IC 50 (konsentrasi penghambatan 50%) asal Papua 27,74 ppm, Jawa Barat 45,93 ppm dan Jawa Tengah 38,13 ppm.

Kata kunci: Biophytum petersianum, mutu simplisia, aksesi, komponen kimia, antioksidan

ABSTRACT

The plant of kebar grass is not known yet, but in Papua it is used as fertility medicine. The active ingredient of Kebar grass as a medicine are steroid group, saponin and flavonoid. The secondary metabolites content were affected and depend of the environment, harvesting time and post-harvest processing. The objectives of research was to find out accession quality of the kebar grass from Papua, West Java and Central Java to produce high quality of simplicia. Research carried out in the Laboratory Testing, Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute in Bogor since March to July 2011. Material used were kebar grass from Papua,West Java and Central Java. All parts of the plants were analyzed to identify its chemical component content. The plant kebar grass washed and then dried and processed into powder. The powder analyzed with the quality parameters measured were : quality characteristics, phytochemicals screening, chemical component, mineral elements and antioxidant activity. The results showed that kebar grass from Papua, West Java and Central Java contain high levels of water greater than alcohol soluble extractive. Number of water-soluble extractive ranged from 11.57 to 1.73% and 10.29 to 10.70% alcohol-soluble extractive value. Phytochemical compound the third source of kebar grass were alcaloids, saponin, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids and glycosides. The kebar grass from Papua consisted of 15 chemical components and from Java had 14 chemical components. Mineral element content of kebar grass increased after the fermentation process (0,00-51,15%). Based on antioxidant activity, kebar grass of Papua was higher than West Java and Central Java  were 27.74, 45.93 and 38.13 ppm respectively.

Key words: Biophytum petersianum, simplicia quality, accession, chemical component, antioxidant activity

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