PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KETAHANAN JAHE TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI MELALUI IMBANGAN HARA DAN KOMPOS TANAMAN ELISITOR Improvement of production and its resistance to bacterial wilt disease through nutrient balance composition and the application of com

PENINGKATAN PRODUKSI DAN KETAHANAN JAHE TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERIMELALUI IMBANGAN HARA DAN KOMPOS TANAMAN ELISITOR

Improvement of production and its resistance to bacterial wilt disease through nutrient balance composition and the application of compost derived from elicitor plant

Agus Ruhnayat dan Sri Yuni Hartati

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

  balittro@litbang.deptan.go.id

(diterima 01 April 2014, direvisi 15 April 2014, disetujui 29 April 2014)

ABSTRAK

Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Cicurug Sukabumi, Jawa Barat sejak September 2011 sampai Mei 2012. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan imbangan hara dan kompos tanaman bersifat elisitor (temulawak) yang dapat meningkatkan produksi rimpang dan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri. Jahe yang digunakan adalah jahe putih besar yang ditanam pada media tanah dalam polibag. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah petak terbagi (split plot), diulang lima kali. Petak utama adalah (1) tanpa inokulasi Ralstonia solanacearum dan (2) inokulasi sebanyak 107 cfu ml-1. Sedangkan sebagai anak petak adalah imbangan  hara,  yaitu  (1) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl, (2) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 + Mn, Cu, B, (3) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 10 t ha-1 kompos temulawak, (4) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 belerang + Mn, Cu, B + 10 t ha-1 kompos temulawak, dan (5) dosis rekomendasi sebagai pembanding (500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 400 kg ha-1 KCl). Dosis pupuk Mn, Cu, dan B masing-masing sebanyak tiga kg ha-1. Inokulasi bakteri R. solanacearum diberikan dua bulan setelah tanam dengan cara disiramkan pada tanah di sekitar perakaran tanaman sebanyak 200 ml tanaman-1. Pemberian imbangan hara 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 belerang + unsur hara mikro Mn, Cu, dan B dapat meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri sehingga dapat mempertahankan tanaman hidup sebesar 78,56% dengan tingkat kerusakan tanaman 18,43% dan meningkatkan hasil rimpang sebesar 730 g tanaman-1 setara 29,2 t ha-1. Pemberian kompos tanaman elisitor (temulawak) belum dapat meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman jahe terhadap penyakit layu bakteri.

Kata kunci: Ralstonia solanacearum, Zingiber officinale, imbangan hara, elisitor

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted at Cicurug Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java from September 2011 to May 2012. The purpose of the study is to obtain a balanced-nutrient fertilizer’s and plant elicitor-derived compost (java turmeric) which can increase the ginger rhizome yield and its resistance to bacterial wilt disease. Plant material used was the big white ginger which were grown on soil medium in a polybag. The study was arranged in split-plot design, repeated five times. The main plots were Ralstonia solanacearum inoculations, namely (1) without inoculation and (2) inoculation of 107 cfu ml-1. While the subplots were a fertilizer formula, namely (1) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl, (2) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 + Mn, Cu, B, (3) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 10 t ha-1 of compost ginger, (4) 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 sulfur + Mn, Cu, B + 10 t ha-1 of Java turmeric-compost, and (5) recommended dosage as a standard (500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 400 kg ha-1 KCl). Each of Mn, Cu, and B fertilizers dosage was three kg ha-1. R. solanacearum inoculations were applied at two months after planting by means of spraying the soil around the plant roots as much as 200 ml plant-1. Application of the nutrient balance of 500 kg ha-1 urea + 300 kg ha-1 of SP-36 + 600 kg ha-1 KCl + 500 kg ha-1 CaCO3 + 500 kg ha-1 sulfur + micro nutrients Mn, Cu, and B could increase ginger resilience against bacterial wilt that can sustain life by 78.56%, the level of crop damage 18,43% and improve the rhizome yield of 730 g plant-1 equivalent to 29.2 t ha-1. Application of elicitor plant-compost (Java turmeric) has not been able to increase the resilience of ginger plants against bacterial wilt disease.

Key words: Ralstonia solanacearum, Zingiber officinale,nutrient balance, elicitor

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