PENGARUH ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN SAMBUNG PUCUK KEPEL (Stelechocarpus burahol).The effect of plant growth regulator for grafting propagation method on Stelechocarpus burahol

PENGARUH ZAT PENGATUR TUMBUH TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN SAMBUNG PUCUK KEPEL (Stelechocarpus burahol)

The effect of plant growth regulator for grafting propagation method on Stelechocarpus burahol

Mono Rahardjo, Endjo Djauharia, dan Ireng Darwati

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111

Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

 balittro@litbang.deptan.go.id  monrahardjo@yahoo.co.id

(diterima 28 Februari 2014, direvisi 11 Maret 2014, disetujui 17 April 2014)

ABSTRAK

Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) merupakan tanaman obat langka. Dahulu tanaman kepel hanya ditanam di lingkungan keraton khususnya di Jawa. Tanaman kepel pada umumnya diperbanyak melalui biji, oleh karena itu untuk memperbaiki kualitas dan mempercepat masa produksi maka diperlukan perbanyakan secara sambung pucuk. Tujuan penelitian untuk meningkatkan keberhasilan dan vigor benih hasil sambung pucuk. Penelitian sambung pucuk di laksanakan di rumah kaca, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Bahan tanaman kepel diperoleh dari Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dimulai dengan penyiapan batang bawah yang diperoleh dari biji kepel disemaikan di bak plastik kemudian setelah berkecambah dipindahkan ke polibag. Setek pucuk diperoleh dari pohon induk berumur lebih kurang 30-50 tahun, diambil dari Jawa Tengah. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah: tanpa ZPT (kontrol), luka sayatan di semprot dengan air, 25, 50, dan 100% air kelapa, dan larutan 500 ppm GA3. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan tiga ulangan. Setiap ulangan terdiri dari 10 tanaman. Parameter yang diamati adalah, persentase tanaman tumbuh setelah 1, 2, dan 3 bulan grafting, jumlah daun baru, panjang dan jumlah tunas baru. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap bulan selama tiga bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persentase benih kepel hidup umur tiga bulan setelah penyambungan tertinggi pada perlakuan air (82,64%), tidak berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan perlakuan 25% air kelapa dan kontrol (kering). Pemberian perlakuan air kelapa 25, 50, dan 100% tidak berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan persentase benih hidup, namun mampu mempertahankan vigor benih dari umur dua bulan sampai tiga bulan setelah penyambungan. Pemberian hormon GA3 dosis 500 ppm tidak berpengaruh terhadap persentase benih hidup, tetapi mampu mempertahahan vigor benih yang tumbuh.

Kata kunci: Stelechocarpus burahol, perbanyakan vegetatif, ZPT

ABSTRACT

Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is a rare medicinal plant, formerly the plant was only grown in the palace, especially in Java. Commonly, kepel was propagated generatively through seed. Therefore, it is important to find appropriate vegetative propagation technique to improve yield quality and accelerate fruiting period. The purpose of this study was to increasing of the percentage of successful and shoot vigor grafting. The research was conducted at glass house of Indonesian Spices and Medicinal Crops Research Institute. Plant material was obtained from West Java and Central Java. Rootstock was prepared by sown the seed in the plastic container and once the seeds were germinated, they were transplanted to the polybags. As for scions, the material was obtained from plants of 30-50 years old grown. The tested treatment were the application of plants growth regulator (PGR) to the incision between scion and rootstock : no PGR (dry), water, 25, 50, 100% coconut water, and 500 ppm GA3. The experiment was arranged in randomized block design with 10 plants plot-1 on three replicated. Parameters observed were : percentage of successful grafting at one, two and three month after grafting (MAG), number of new leaf and length of new shoot at three MAG. The result indicated the high percentage of successful grafting (82.64%) on water treatment at three MAG. The applications of 25, 50, and 100% coconut water not significantly increasing the percentage of successful grafting. However, applications of 25, 50, and 100% coconut water, to increased shoot vigor at two MAG and three MAG. The application of PGR had no effect to the successful of grafting on kepel.

Key words: Stelechocarpus burahol, vegetative propagation, growth hormon

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