KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU 15 AKSESI NILAM Morphological characteristics, production and quality of 15 patchouli accessions

KARAKTERISTIK MORFOLOGI, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU 15 AKSESI NILAM Morphological characteristics, production and quality of 15 patchouli accessions

Wawan Haryudin dan Sri Suhesti

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 Telp 0251-8321879 Faks 0251-8327010

balittro@litbang.deptan.go.id  wharyudin@yahoo.com

(diterima 24 Juni 2013, direvisi 12 Februari 2014, disetujui 23 April 2014)

 

ABSTRAK

Peningkatkan mutu genetik tanaman dapat dilakukan melalui, eksplorasi, hibridisasi, mutasi breeding dan rekayasa genetik. Tanaman nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth.) mempunyai variasi genetik yang sempit karena diperbanyak secara vegetatif. Salah satu teknik peningkatan mutu genetik nilam dapat dilakukan dengan mengumpulkan plasma nutfah dari berbagai sentra produksi maupun daerah lainnya. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui karakter morfologi, anatomi, produksi dan mutu minyak atsiri 15 aksesi nilam. Penelitian dilakukan di KP. Cimanggu Balittro sejak Januari sampai Desember 2010. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan dua ulangan. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah 15 aksesi yaitu GR1, GR3, GR4, BNY, CLP, PWK1, BRS, DRI, PKB, GYL, KT, TM2, Sipede 4, LO1, SK dan varietas Sidikalang sebagai kontrol. Parameter yang diamati karakter pertumbuhan, produksi dan mutu pada umur lima bulan setelah tanam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan variasi yang tinggi terhadap karakter kuantitatif, sedangkan pada karakter kualitatif variasinya sangat sempit. Tingkat kekerabatan berdasarkan karakter morfologi batang dan daun berkisar antara 83,95-97,41%, karakter produksi dan mutu berkisar antara 65,86-95,91% dan terbagi menjadi dua kelompok utama yaitu kelompok I dan II. Masing-masing kelompok dipisahkan oleh karakter jumlah daun, panjang daun, tebal daun, tinggi tanaman, jumlah cabang sekunder, panjang ruas cabang, diameter batang, bobot basah, bobot kering, dan jumlah kelenjar minyak. Tingginya kandungan kadar minyak atsiri dan patchouli alkohol terdapat pada GR1 (2,44%), GR3 (2,27%), GR4 (3,31%), PKB (2,85%), dan TM2 (2,25%) dengan kadar patchouli alkohol di atas 43,85%. Produksi bobot basah 402,3-861,2 g dan bobot kering 91,3-203,4 g tanaman-1.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, morfologi, produksi, mutu minyak

ABSTRACT

Improving the quality of plants genetic can do through exploration, hybridization, breeding mutation and genetic engineering. Patchouli plant (Pogostemon cablin Benth) has a narrow genetic variation because they propagated vegetatively. One of the technique to increase the genetic quality of patchouli could be done by collecting germplasm of production centre and other areas. The aim of this research was to observe characteristic morphology, anatomy, yield and volatile oil quality from 15 accessions of patchouli. The research was conducted at Cimanggu Experiment Station of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute since January to December 2010. The experiment  were arranged in Randomized Block Design with two replications. The plant materials used were 15 accessions i.e. GR 1, GR3, GR4, BNY, CLP, PWK1, BRS, DRI, PKB, GYL, KT, TM2, Sipede 4, LO1, SK, and Sidikalang variety as a control. The observed parameters were growth character yield and oil quality at five months after planting. The result showed that high variations were shown in quantitative character, while variation of qualitative character was very low. The similarity level based on morphological characters of stem and leaves ranged from 83.95-97.41%, quality and yield ranged between 65.86-95.91%, and was divided into two main groups i.e. the groups I and II. Eech group was separated by character of number of leaves, leaf length, leaf thickness, plant height, the number of secondary branches, length of branches internode, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight, and the amount of oil glands. High content of essential oil and patchouli alcohol were performent by GR1 (2.44%), GR3 (2.27%), GR4 (3.31%), PKB (2.85%), and TM2 (2.25%) with the patchouli alcohol mere than 43.85%. Average yield of fresh weight was 402.3-861,2 g and dry weight 91.3-203.4 g a plant.

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, morphology, production, oil quality

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