SOMAKLON JPB PRODUKTIVITAS 30 TON/HA TOLERAN 70% LAYU BAKTERI

SOMAKLON JPB PRODUKTIVITAS 30 TON/HA TOLERAN 70% LAYU BAKTERI

S. F. Syahid., O. Rostiana., S. Aisyah, D. Surachman

ABSTRAK

Serangan bakteri layu pada jahe yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Ralstonia solanacearum, sampai saat ini masih merupakan kendala besar yang belum dapat diatasi. Beberapa usaha pengendalian masih belum efektif, terutama karena belum ada nomor-nomor jahe yang tahan terhadap R. solanacearum. Peluang memperoleh varian baru jahe toleran terhadap R. solanacearum dapat dilakukan dengan metode inkonvensional. Salah satunya adalah, peningkatan keragaman genetik melalui induksi ketahanan secara in vitro pada stadia kalus selanjutnya dilakukan seleksi menggunakan medium selektif filtrat bakteri patogen dan elisitor kimia Acibenzolar-S-methyl. Kalus jahe tahan media seleksi (filtrat R. solanacearum dan elisitor Acibenzolar S-methyl), yang berhasil diregenerasi, menunjukkan penampilan morfologi planlet yang lebih tegar dari tanaman kontrol. Diduga sifat ketahanan pada sel tanaman hasil seleksi in vitro (somaklon) telah terinduksi. Lima populasi somaklon jahe; AC1, FA, FB, FIPLA dan AC2 kemudian diuji di lahan endemik penyakit layu bakteri menggunakan metode observasi langsung. Kelima populasi somaklon tersebut tumbuh baik pada kondisi lapang di lahan endemik. Pada umur satu bulan setelah tanam, anakan baru tumbuh dengan baik dan terdapat penambahan sekitar 1-10 anakan. Penampilan daun dan batang hijau normal mencirikan pertumbuhan yang optimal. Sampai akhir Desember 2011 belum ditemui gejala serangan penyakit layu bakteri meskipun curah hujan relative konsisten. Sementara itu perbanaykan in vitro untuk stok benih somaklon yang menunjukkan pertumbuhan terbaik (FA 1.2), tetap dilakukan melalui embriogenesis somatik.

Kata kunci: Zingiber officinale Rosc., somaklon, toleran bateri layu, uji lapang, stok benih, in vitro

ABSTRACT

Bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum  is a main constraint in ginger cultivation. Various experiments had been carried out to eliminate the economic losses. To date, an effective method for controlling the disease has not been appropriately established, due to the unavailability of resistant variety. Ginger variety resistant to bacterial wilts could be developed through inconventional methods. One is, an increase in genetic diversity through the induction of resistance in vitro on callus stadia, selection is then performed using a selective medium filtrate of pathogenic bacteria and chemical elisitor Acibenzolar-S-methyl. Ginger-resistant callus to selection medium (filtrate of R. solanacearum and elisitor Acibenzolar S-methyl), which successfully regenerated, those planlets shown. better growth and vigor as compared to untreated planlets. Suggesting that resistant characteristic has been induced on the regenerated plants derived from in vitro selection (somaclones). Five somaclones population (AC1, FA, FAS, FIPLA and AC2) then tested in the field of endemic bacterial wilt disease using direct observation methods. Five somaclones population grew well in the field of endemic area. At the age of one month after planting, new seedlings grow well and there is the addition of about 1-10 shoots. Appearance of normal green leaves and stems characterize optimal growth. Until the end of December 2011, the symptoms of bacterial wilt disease were not encountered, although the rainfall.was relatively consistent Meanwhile, in vitro propagation for somaclones seed stocks that showed the best growth (FA 1.2), is still being done through somatic embryogenesis.

Keyword:    Z. officinale Rosc., somaclones, bacterial wilts tolerant, field testing, in vitro seeds stock.

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