PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI CENGKEH DAN SERAIWANGI UNTUK MENEKAN SERANGAN NEMATODA Meloidogyne sp. (> 50%) PADA JAHE

PEMANFAATAN PESTISIDA NABATI CENGKEH DAN SERAIWANGI UNTUK MENEKAN SERANGAN NEMATODA Meloidogyne sp. (> 50%) PADA JAHE

Retno Djiwanti, Supriadi, Kurniati

ABSTRAK

Penelitian tahun 2011 ini merupakan lanjutan penelitian tahun 2010 dimana beberapa formula minyak cengkeh dan serai wangi yang efektif menekan serangan nematoda buncak akar Meloidogyne sp. >50% pada konsentrasi 2,0% di rumah kaca, akan diuji lebih lanjut di KP Cimanggu, Bogor dan KP Cicurug, Sukabumi pada konsentrasi 1,0%. Penelitian di KP. Cimanggu, Bogor benih rimpang jahe ditanam dalam polibeg besar (50×50 cm3) berisi tanah kebun. Setelah berumur kira-kira 2 bulan, bibit diinokulasi dengan 500 larva nematoda per tanaman. Kemudian diperlakukan dengan formula 1) eugenol+citronellal, 2) formula citronellal+asam salisilat, 3) formula eugenol + xanthorizol, (4) formula kompos limbah daun cengkeh, 5) carbofuran. Pada percobaan di KP Cicurug, Sukabumi, bibit jahe yang diperlakukan dengan formula petisida nabati tidak diinokulasi dengan nematoda tetapi bergantung dari infeksi alami. Perlakuan disusun secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 3 ulangan, dimana tiap ulangan terdiri dari 10 tanaman pada percobaan di KP Cimanggu, dan 25 tanaman pada percobaan di KP Cicurug. Empat-lima bulan setelah aplikasi formula, tanaman dibongkar, ditimbang bobot segar tanaman dan rimpang, dan di analisa populasi nematoda per g akar. Pada percobaan di KP Cimanggu, kegiatan yang telah dilakukan sampai bulan Desember 2011 adalah penanaman jahe, pemupukan, perlakuan pestisida nabati, pemeliharaan tanaman percobaan serta pengamatan pertumbuhan tanaman; sedangkan percobaan di KP Cicurug, baru pada tahap penanaman. Panen dilakukan pada bulan Februari (di KP Cimanggu) dan Mei 2012 (di KP Cicurug). Realisasi fisik pelaksanaan penelitian adalah 90,24%. Dari pertumbuhan tanaman jahe yang diinokulasi dengan nematoda dan diberi perlakuan formula petisida nabati, pada konsentrasi 1%, umumnya tidak mengalami habatan pertumbuhan kecuali pada perlakuan formula eugenol+citronellal; sedangkan formula lainnya (citronellal+asam salisilat dan formula eugenol+xanthorizol) tidak menghambat pertumbuhan. Realisasi anggaran sampai bulan Desember 2011 adalah sebesar 95,85% %.

Kata kunci: jahe, pestisida nabati, minyak atsiri, pengendalian nematoda buncak akar Meloidogyne sp.

ABSTRACT

Research in 2011 was aimed to test further in the field, the botanical pesticide formula of clove and citronella grass which were effective in suppressing ginger root-knot nematode population in green house test in 2010. The experiment were carried out in research station of IMACRI in Cimanggu, Bogor and experimental garden in KP. Cicurug, Sukabumi. In KP Cimanggu, ginger rhizome seeds were grown in big polybags contained field soil. After about 2 month year-old, the seedlings were inoculated with 500 nematode larva per plant. The inoculated-plants then were treated with botanical pesticide formulas i.e: 1) eugenol+citronellal formula, 2) eugenol+xanthorizol formula, 3) citronellal+salicilic acid formula and 4) chemical carbofuran. In KP Cicurug, the formula-treated ginger seedlings were not inoculated with nematode but depending on the natural infection. The tretments were designed as Randomized Block Design with 3 replications, which each replication consisted of 25 plants in KP Cicurug; and 10 plants in KP Cimanggu. Four – five months after pesticide application, the plants were uprooted, the ginger rhizome were weighted and nematode population per g root were analized. In KP Cimanggu, research activities which have been done until December 2011 were: 1) planting ginger, 2) applying the fertilizer, 3) nematode inoculation, 4) botanical pesticide formula treatment, 5) maintenance of experiment plants and 5) monitoring the plant growth; while in KP Cicurug, the activity was just planting plant. Phisical realization of the experiment until December 2011 Was about 90,24%. In KP Cimanggu, from plant growth observation, all formula tested at 1.0% concentration, showed that the treatment did not affected plant growth, except the formula eugenol+citronella. The second fertilizer application and botanical pesticide formula application will carry out on January 2012. Harvest and data analysis will carry out on March 2012. Budget realization until December 2011 was about 95,85%.

Key words: ginger, botanical pesticide, essential oil, root-knot nematode control.

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