PEMANFAATAN PUPUK ORGANIK DAN HAYATI UNTUK EFISIENSI PUPUK ANORGANIK

PEMANFAATAN PUPUK ORGANIK DAN HAYATI UNTUK EFISIENSI PUPUK ANORGANIK

O. Trisilawati, E. Rini P, S. Suhirman, M. Zainudin N. Mahdi dan E. Sugiman

ABSTRAK

Pada umumnya areal pertanaman nilam mempunyai tingkat kesuburan yang rendah, sedangkan nilam tergolong tanaman yang memerlukan asupan hara cukup tinggi untuk dapat berproduksi optimal. Penggunaan pupuk kimia dalam waktu yang lama akan mengakibatkan degradasi lahan baik secara fisik, kimia dan biologi, serta memberatkan petani. Untuk itu diperlukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mendapatkan satu (1) jenis pupuk organik dan hayati yang dapat mengefisienkan ≥ 50% pupuk anorganik. Penelitian dilakukan di kebun percobaan Cicurug, Jawa Barat. Rancangan yang digunakan acak kelompok (RAK), terdiri dari dua faktor (pupuk anorganik dan organik/hayati), faktor pertama adalah pupuk NPK yaitu: a). dosis anjuran (100 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 + 100 kg K2O/ha), b) 75% dosis anjuran (75 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 75 kg K2O/ha), c). 50% dosis anjuran (50 kg N + 20 kg P2O5 + 50 kg K2O/ha), dan d). 25% dosis anjuran (25 kg N + 10 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O/ha). Faktor kedua adalah jenis pupuk organik dan hayati (Fungi Mikoriza Arbuskula), yaitu: a). kontrol, b). 1 kg pukan+FMA, c). 2 kg kompos A + FMA, dan d). 2 kg kompos B + FMA, terdiri dari 16 perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Parameter yang diamati meliputi: pertumbuhan tanaman setiap bulan sampai panen, dan parameter produksi (produksi terna segar dan kering angin, produksi minyak nilam, kadar patchouli alkohol), serapan hara N, P dan K terna. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman nilam terbaik dihasilkan dari perlakuan kompos limbah penyulingan nilam+FMA (bobot segar dan kering sebesar 499 dan 111,3 g/tan.), diikuti oleh kompos hijauan+FMA (bobot segar dan kering sebesar 440 dan 98 g/tan.). Penurunan dosis pupuk NPK sampai 50%+kompos limbah penyulingan nilam + FMA menghasilkan parameter pertumbuhan tanaman tertinggi pada tiga bulan setelah tanam (BST). Bobot kering terna tertinggi dihasilkan dari perlakuan dosis penuh pupuk NPK + kompos limbah penyulingan nilam + FMA, dan diikuti oleh 50% pupuk NPK + kompos limbah penyulingan nilam + FMA. Produksi minyak tertinggi dihasilkan pada perlakuan dosis NPK anjuran+kompos limbah nilam+FMA, diikuti oleh ¾ dosis NPK + kompos hijauan+FMA dan ½ dosis NPK+kompos limbah nilam+FMA.

Kata kunci : Pogostemon cablin, hemat pupuk, pupuk organik dan hayati, produksi

ABSTRACT

Generally, the patchouli plantation area has nutrient limitation, whereas the nutrient requirement of patchouli crop is high enough to have optimal production. The application of chemical/inorganic fertilizer continuously for long period leads to physical, chemical and biological soil degradation. Therefore, a research on utilization of organic and bio fertilizer for reducing application of inorganic fertilizer was considered urgently to be carried.  The objective of the current activity was to obtain one kind of organic and bio fertilizer for efficient use of inorganic fertilizer (decreasing ≥ 50% from recommended dose). The research carried out in the Cicurug Research Plantation of IMACRI, West Java. The experiment conducted in randomized block design with two factors (inorganic fertilizer and organic-bio fertilizer), first factor was inorganic fertilizer : a). Recomended level (100 kg N + 40 kg P2O5 + 100 kg K2O/ha), b) 75% Recomended level (75 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 75 kg K2O/ha), c). 50% Recomended level (50 kg N + 20 kg P2O5 + 50 kg K2O/ha), and d). 25% Recomended level (25 kg N + 10 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O/ha), the second factor was kind of organic-bio fertilizer : a).control, b). 1 kg cowdung+AMF (Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi), c). 2 kg compost A + AMF, and d). 2 kg compost B + AMF. The experiment consist of 16 treatments with three replications. Parameters observed were vegetative plant growth in every month until 5 months after planting, plant production (fresh and dry herb, oil yield and oil quality), and also the uptake of N, P and K. The study showed that the application of disttilery waste compost of patchouli+AMF resulted the best growth and yield of patchouli, followed by forage compost+AMF.  Decreasing level of NPK fertilizer to 50%+ disttilery waste compost of patchouli +AMF produced the highest plant growth at 3 MAP.  The highest shoot dry weight was resulted from the application of full dose of NPK+ disttilery waste compost of patchouli+AMF, and followed by 50% NPK+ disttilery waste compost of patchouli+AMF. The highest oil production was resulted from the treatment of recommended level of NPK+ disttilery waste compost of patchouli +AMF, followed by ¾ NPK+forage compost+AMF and 50% of NPK+ disttilery waste compost of patchouli +AMF

Keywords: Pogostemon cablin, efficient use of inorganic fertilizer, organic-bio fertilizer, production

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2 thoughts on “PEMANFAATAN PUPUK ORGANIK DAN HAYATI UNTUK EFISIENSI PUPUK ANORGANIK

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