VARIETAS NILAM TAHAN 60% TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI, PRODUKSI ≥ 320 Kg/Ha MELALUI VARIASI SOMAKLONAL

VARIETAS NILAM TAHAN 60% TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI, PRODUKSI ≥ 320 Kg/Ha MELALUI VARIASI SOMAKLONAL

Endang Hadipoentyanti, Amalia, Nursalam, S. Y. Hartati dan O. Trisilawati

ABSTRAK

Masalah utama yang dihadapai budidaya nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) di Indonesia adalah penyakit layu bakteri yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Ralstonia solanacearum yang dapat menimbulkan kerusakan hingga sebesar 60 – 95%. Sampai saat ini belum ada varietas yang tahan terhadap penyakit layu bakteri meskipun varietas Sidikalang diindikasikan mempunyai sifat agak toleran terhadap penyakit tersebut. Keterbatasan sumber genetik merupakan faktor pembatas dalam pemuliaan tanaman nilam karena tanaman nilam tidak berbunga/berbiji dan selalu diperbanyak secara vegetatif dengan setek. Salah satu upaya yang efektif untuk menambah keragaman genetik adalah dengan cara induksi mutasi in vitro dan in irradiasi dengan memanfaatkan variasi somaklonal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi karakteristik morfologi daya hasil dan mutu 5 nomor harapan nilam di 3 agroekologi dan kejadian layu bakteri di tiap lokasi dan masing-masing varietas. Metodologi kegiatan penelitian dilakukan di 3 agroekologi yaitu Banten (100 m dpl), Kuningan (300 m dpl) dan Purwokerto (600 m dpl). Perlakuan adalah 5 nomor harapan (A, B, C, D, E) dan 1 varietas Sidikalang sebagai pembanding  (F). Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) dengan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati intensitas penyakit, pertumbuhan tanaman (tinggi tanaman, diameter batang, jumlah cabang, panjang ruas dan jumlah daun), produksi terna (basah dan kering angin), produksi minyak, kadar minyak dan mutu minyak (kadar patchouli alkohol). Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan pertumbuhan somaklon nilam di 3 agroekologi sangat bervariasi, akan tetapi pertumbuhan terbaik pada tahun pertama adalah somaklon B, diikuti oleh somaklon A, somaklon D dan somaklon C. Rata-rata kadar minyak dan PA di Kuningan tertinggi pada somaklon B sebesar 2,36% dan 32,33%. Di Purwokerto kadar minyak dan PA tertinggi adalah somaklon B sebesar 2,32% dan somaklon E sebesar 36,47%.

Kata kunci : Pogostemon cablin, variasi somaklonal, adaptasi, ketahanan, penyakit layu bakteri

ABSTRACT

Resistance (60%) of patchouli variety to bacterial wilt disease, production ≥ 320 kg/ha through somaclonal variation. The main problems of Patchouli (Pogotemon cablin Benth) cultivation in Indonesia is bacterial wilt disease caused Ralstonia solanacearum, and its yield lost reaches up to 60%-95%. Until now superior/resistant variety of patchouli is not available yet. Sidikalang variety indicated most tolerant to bacterial wilt disease. The limited genetic resources becomes serious constraint of patchouli breeding program, because in Indonesia P. cablin does not form flower and seeds are not available. Stem cuttings is common way in during mass multiplication. Increase genetic variability of patchouli by induction mutation at in vitro and irradiation of somaclonal variation were considered as promising method at present. A research aimed to evaluate morphological characteristics, productivity and its resistance against wilt disease of five patchouli somaclones was carried out at three different agroecological zones. The selected fields test were Banten (100 m dpl), Kuningan (300 m dpl) and Purwokerto (600 m dpl). The treatments were five somaclones (A, B, C, D, E) and one Sidikalang variety as control (F). Randomized Block Design with four replications was applied for collecting the data. Parameters observed were disease severity, plant growth (plant diameter, branch numbers, internode length and leave numbers), herbs production, oil content and oil quality (patchouli alcohol). Up to the first year, the results showed that the growth of five somaclones of patchouli in three agroecological varied. In general, soma clone B, A, D, and C showed best growth respectively.  The highest oil and the PA content of somaclone B were 2.36% and 32.33%, which it was obtained at Kuningan field test, while  at Purwokerto field test the oil and PA content of somaclone B were 2.32% and 35,47% respectively.

Keywords : Pogostemon cablin, somaclonal variation, adaptation, resistance, bacterial wilt disease.

Download full text

 

2 thoughts on “VARIETAS NILAM TAHAN 60% TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI, PRODUKSI ≥ 320 Kg/Ha MELALUI VARIASI SOMAKLONAL

  • Friday December 27th, 2019 at 09:52 PM
    Permalink

    Oh my goodness! Impressive article dude! Thank you so much, However I am going through problems with your RSS. I don’t know the reason why I cannot join it. Is there anyone else getting the same RSS problems? Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanx!!

    Reply
    • Tuesday January 7th, 2020 at 07:01 AM
      Permalink

      Thank you to visit web balitro

      Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *