EVALUASI 15 AKSESI LEMPUYANG DAN UJI ADAPTASI 5 NOMOR HARAPAN LEMPUYANG

EVALUASI 15 AKSESI LEMPUYANG DAN UJI ADAPTASI 5 NOMOR HARAPAN LEMPUYANG

Sri Wahyuni, N. Bermawie, D. Rusmin

ABSTRAK

Lempuyang banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat untuk obat/jamu sebagai peningkat stamina, anti kanker dan obat anti infeksi. Lima belas nomor koleksi plasma nutfah lempuyang yang telah dikumpulkan dari berbagai daerah, telah dilakukan karakterisa-si/evaluasi untuk mengetahui karakter potensial tanaman tersebut. Penanaman dilakukan di KP. Cicurug – Sukabumi Jawa Barat selama dua musim panen 2010 dan 2011. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak kelmpok, 3 ulangan dengan jumlah tanaman per plot sebanyak 20 tanaman.  Data hasil evaluasi, sebanyak 5 nomor terpilih dilanjutkan uji adaptasi di tiga lokasi (Cibinong-Bogor, Karanganyar-Jateng, Kulon Progo-DIY). Uji adaptasi menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, 4 ulangan dengan jumlah tanaman per plot 30 tanaman. Hasil karakterisasi tanaman di lapang menunjukkan pertumbuhan lempuyang  yang diamati saat pertumbuhan vegetatif optimal (umur 5-6 bulan) setelah tanam menunjukkan variasi pada karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan jumlah daun, panjang dan lebar daun. Tinggi tanaman 60-90 cm, jumlah anakan 3 – 9 buah, jumlah daun 10 – 25 buah, panjang daun 20-35 cm dan lebar daun 5 -7 cm. Produksi rimpang per rumpun pada umur panen 9 BST, antar aksesi bervariasi dengan kisaran 275 – 615g/rumpun, setara dengan 9 – 18 on/ha. Rimpang banyak berakar, warna kulit rimpang kekuningan, warna daging rimpang krem kekuningan atau krem keputihan. Bentuk rimpang kompak atau menyirip. Mutu proksimat dari bahan simplisia kering rimpang lempuyang wangi berkisar antara 1.28 – 3.38%, kadar sari larut air 16.26 – 24.93%, kadar sari larut  ethanol 9.45 – 16.43% dan kadar serat 5.43 – 11.40%. Kandungan bahan aktif dalam ekstrak lempuyang antar nomor koleksi bervariasi dengan jumlah komponen bahan aktif 12 – 34 macam. Variasi kandungan ini tercermin dalam variasi wangi aroma rimpang yang berbeda. Komponen utama dalam rimpang lempuyang adalah zerumbone (48.64 – 77.99%) dan linalool (1.2 – 10.34%). Analisa gabungan dari tiga lokasi terhadap pertumbuhan awal tanaman memperlihatkan interaksi antara genotif dengan lingkungan terhadap semua karakter pertumbuhan. Aksesi no. 2 mempunyai tampilan daun lebih sempit dan memanjang (lebih lanset), sedang aksesi no. 11 mempunyai batang yang kokoh dengan diameter batang lebih besar.

Kata kunci : Plasma nutfah, lempuyang, Zingiber aromaticum

ABSTRACT

Lempuyang (wild ginger, aromatic ginger) is ones of Zingiberaceaefamily, people use of this plant as medicine for stamina improvement, anti cancer and anti infection. Fifteen collection numbers of wild ginger which have been collected from several areahave been observed for he character of morphological, rhizome constituent, and the yield potential aim to selected the best material for adaptation test. Observation have been conducted at Cicurug Garden, Sukabumi – West Java. Plant was planted according to randomized block design, three replication and consist of 20 numbers of plant per plot. Five selected accession then observed for adaptation test at three location (Cibinong-Bogor, Karanganyar-Central java, Kulon Progo-DIY). Design for adaptation test using randomized block design, four replication and consist of 30 plant per plot. Observation result show that  wild ginger which observed at maksimum growth condition (6-7 months after planting) showed variation in plant height, numbers of tillers, numbers of leves, leaves length and leaf width. Variation of pant height range from 60 – 90 cm, numbers of tillers 3-9, numbers of leaves 10 – 25 sheet, leaves length 20 – 35 cm and leaves width 5 – 7 cm. Rhizome yield that harvested in this season range from 275 – 615g/tiller, or 9 – 18 ton/ha. Wild ginger rhizome has plenty of roots, some having water root stock. The rhizome skin colour is yellowish, flesh rhizome colour is creamy yellow or creamy white. Whole rhizome shape of wild ginger is compact or like finger shape. Rhizome quality for essential oil is range from 1.28 – 3.38%, extract solubel water 16.26 – 24.93%, extract soluble in ethanol 9.45 – 16.43%, fiber content 5.43 – 11.40%. GS-MS of wild ginger rhizome ekstract detected 12 – 34 kind of constituent. The differences constituent composition revealed the differences of rhizome scent. The major constituent is zerumbone (48.64 – 77.99%) and linalool (1.2 – 10.34%). Composite Analysis of. Variance for growth characters showed the interaction of genotype and location. In the early growth, accession no. 2 has slimmer leave blade and accession no. 11 has stem girth bigger and stronger.

Keywords  :  Germ plasm,  wild ginger,  Zingiber aromaticum


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2 thoughts on “EVALUASI 15 AKSESI LEMPUYANG DAN UJI ADAPTASI 5 NOMOR HARAPAN LEMPUYANG

  • Jumat Desember 27th, 2019 at 11:59
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    • Senin Januari 6th, 2020 at 06:50
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