PENGUJIAN KETAHANAN HIBRIDA SOMATIK NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth)TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI (Ralstonia solanacearum) DI LAHAN ENDEMI

PENGUJIAN KETAHANAN HIBRIDA SOMATIK NILAM (Pogostemon cablin Benth)TERHADAP PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI (Ralstonia solanacearum) DI LAHAN ENDEMI

Resistance of patchouli somatic hybrid(Pogostemon cablin Benth) to bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) in endemic area

Nasrun, Nurmansyah, Herwita Idris, dan Burhanudin

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 nasrunlaing@yahoo.com

(diterima 21 Maret 2012, disetujui 29 September 2012)

ABSTRAK

Pengujian ketahanan hibrida somatik nilam terhadap penyakit layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum) di lahan endemik telah dilaksanakan di daerah endemik penyakit layu bakteri nilam di Desa Situak Ujung Gading Pasaman Barat, Sumatera Barat sejak Januari sampai Desember 2009.Tujuan penelitian untuk mendapatkan hibrida somatik nilam tahan penyakit layu bakteri. Penelitian menggunakan lima nomor hibrida somatik nilam terpilih hasil pengujian secara in planta di rumah kaca, yaitu 2 IV/4; 2 IV/5; 2 IV/9; 9 II/21; 9 IV/3, serta varietas Sidikalang sebagai pembanding. Perlakuan disusun dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan lima ulangan. Parameter yang diamati adalah masa inkubasi penyakit, kematian tanaman, intensitas serangan penyakit, pertumbuhan tanaman, dan produksi daun basah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, hibrida somatik 2 IV/4 lebih toleran terhadap penyakit layu bakteri dibandingkan hibrida somatik lainnya dan varietas pembanding Sidikalang.Hibrida somatik 2 IV/4 menunjukkan masa inkubasi gejala penyakit 162,5 hari setelah tanam (HST), lebih lambat dibandingkan hibrida somatik lainnya dan varietas Sidikalang, dengan intensitas serangan penyakit 16%, dan tidak mengalami kematian sampai akhir penelitian (184 hari setelah tanam). Hibrida somatik 2 IV/4 juga menunjukkan pertumbuhan tanaman lebih baik dibandingkan dengan hibrida somatik lainnya dan varietas Sidikalang. Hibrida somatik 2 IV/4 juga memperlihatkan produksi daun basah (910,5 g tanaman-1) lebih tinggi dari pada hibrida somatik lainnya dengan produksi daun basah 375,4-775,0 g tanaman-1 dan varietas Sidikalang dengan produksi daun basah 337,5 g tanaman-1 sehingga berpeluang untuk dikembangkan sebagai varietas nilam toleran penyakit layu bakteri.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon cablin, hibrida somatik, penyakit layu bakteri, ketahanan

ABSTRACT

The study on the resistant of patchouli somatic hybrid to bacterial wilt disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) had been conducted in endemic area of those diseases in Situak village Ujung Gading, West Pasaman,West Sumatera from March to December 2009. The objectives of this study was to find out the somatic hybrid of pathcouli resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was performed by using five numbers of somatic hybrid which were selected from the in planta test at the green house e.g. 2 IV/4; 2 IV/5; 2 IV/9; 9 II/21; 9 IV/3; and Sidikalang variety as control. Experiments were arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. Assessment parameters were incubated period leading to the first symptom of disease, died plant, disease intensity, plant growth and fresh leaf yield. The results of the study showed that somatic hybrid 2 IV/4 was more tolerant to bacterial wilt disease compared with others somatic hybrids and its control Sidikalang variety. Somatic hybrid 2 IV/4 showed the first symptom 162.5 days after planting (DAP) occurred latter than the other somatic hybrids and Sidikalang variety with disease intensity of 16%, and all the plants did not die until the end of the study (184 days after planting). Somatic hybrid 2IV/4 also showed better plant growth than others tested plants. In addition, somatic hybrid 2 IV/4 also showed the fresh leaf weight of 910.5 g plant-1 higher than others somatic hybrids with fresh leaf weight of 375.4-775.0 g plant-1 and Sidikalang variety with of 337.5 g plant-1. The hybrid can be 2IV/4 proposed as patchouli variety tolerant to bacterial wilt disease.

Key words: Pogostemon cablin, somatic hybrid, bacterial wilt disease, resistance

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