EFEKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA SITRONELLAL, EUGENOL, DAN AZADIRACHTIN TERHADAP

EFEKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA SITRONELLAL, EUGENOL, DAN AZADIRACHTIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGGEREK BUAH KAKAO Conophomorpa cramerella (Snell.) 

Effectiveness of Citronellal, eugenol, and azarirachtin insecticides against cocoa pod borer Conophomorpa cramerella (Snell.)

Mahrita Willis, I Wayan Laba, dan Rohimatun

Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 3 Bogor 16111 mahrita_willis@yahoo.co.id

(diterima 16 November 2012, disetujui 20 Februari 2013)

ABSTRAK

Penggerek buah kakao (PBK), Conopomorpha cramerella, merupakan salah satu hama utama tanaman kakao di Indonesia. Beberapa cara pengendalian hama tersebut antara lain sanitasi, kondomisasi, dan insektisida. Penggunaan insektisida nabati untuk mengendalikan PBK masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pengendalian pestisida nabati berbahan dasar minyak serai wangi, minyak cengkeh, dan mimba yang masing-masing mengandung sitronellal, eugenol, dan azadirachtin terhadap PBK. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun petani di Ciamis, Jawa Barat, menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, dengan 10 perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas (1) Sitronellal (S) 34% konsentrasi lima ml l-1; (2) Sitronellal (S) 34% konsentrasi 10 ml l-1; (3) Eugenol (E) 80% konsentrasi lima ml l-1; (4) Eugenol (E) 80% konsentrasi 10 ml l-1; (5) Azadirachtin (A) 0,6% konsentrasi lima ml l-1; (6) Azadirachtin (A) 0,6% konsentrasi 10 ml l-1; (7) Sitronellal (S) 34% + Eugenol (E) 80% + Azadirachtin (A) 0,6% konsentrasi lima ml l-1; (8) Sitronellal (S) 34% + Eugenol (E) 80% + Azadirachtin (A) 0,6% konsentrasi 10 ml l-1; (9) insektisida sintetis sebagai pembanding Alfametrin 15 EC konsentrasi 1,0 ml l-1, dan (10) kontrol (air). Aplikasi dilakukan terhadap buah kakao. Parameter pengamatan antara lain persentase tingkat serangan hama (ringan, sedang, berat) dan persentase kehilangan hasil. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan Sitronellal (S) 34% + Eugenol (E) 80% + Azadirachtin (A) 0,6% konsentrasi lima ml l-1 mampu mengurangi tingkat kerusakan buah akibat serangan PBK yang ditunjukkan dengan nilai efektivitas 37,00% pada serangan ringan; 51,62% pada serangan sedang; dan 65,18% pada serangan berat.

Kata kunci: efektivitas, Conophomorpha cramerella, kakao, sitronellal, eugenol, azadirachtin

ABSTRACT

Cocoa pod borer (CPB) caused by Conopomorpha cramerella is one of the most important pest on cocoa in Indonesia. Several methods in controlling of those pest and disease such as sanitation, condomisation, and using pesticide. The use of botanical insecticide to overcome of those pest is very limited. This study exemines the effectivity of botanical pesticide based on lemongrass, clove, and neem oil, each contain citronellal, eugenol, and azadirachtine againts CPB. Research was carried out in the farmer cocoa estate crop in Ciamis, West Java and using randomized block design, with 10 treatments and four replications. The treatments consist of plant insecticide contain active compound of Sitronellal (S) 34% concentration five and 10 ml l-1; Eugenol (E) 80% five and 10 ml l-1; Azadirachtin (A) 0.6% five and 10 ml l-1; Sitronellal (S) 34% + Eugenol (E) 80% + Azadirachtin (A) 0.6% five and 10 ml l-1; synthetic insecticide as a comparison Alfametrin 15 EC one ml l-1, and control (water). Application of insecticides were done by spraying of the fruit of the cocoa. Observed parameters were the percentage of the level of pest attack (mild, moderate, severe), yield loss, and phytotoxicity. The conclusion of this study indicated that combined treatments Sitronellal (S) 34% + Eugenol (E) 80% + Azadirachtin (A) 0.6% five ml l-1 reduced damaging fruit by cacao pod borer which was showed by effication value 37% in mild attack; 51,62% in moderate attack; and 61,18% in severe attack.

Key words: effectivity, Conophomorpha cramerella, cocoa, citronellal, eugenol, azadirachtine

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