PEMANFATAN LIMBAH TANAMAN AROMATIK SEBAGAI REPELEN HAMA

PEMANFATAN LIMBAH TANAMAN AROMATIK SEBAGAI REPELEN HAMA

Wiratno, Dono Wahyuno, Sondang, Tri Eko Wahyono

ABSTRAK

Penelitian bertujuan menguji keefektifan mulsa dari limbah tanam atsiri sebagai repelen hama Crocidolomia binotalis (sebesar 30%) pada tanaman brokoli dan dapat meningkatkan kadar N tanah (sebesar 2%). Penelitian dilaksanakan pada tanaman brokoli di Kebun Percobaan Gunung Putri, Cipanas, Bogor. Perlakuan diberikan dengan me-manfaatkan limbah akarwangi, seraiwangi, dan nilam sebagai mulsa dengan total dosis 150 gr/tanaman. Aplikasi terdiri atas 3 cara yaitu diaplikasikan 1x (150 gr/tanaman/-aplikasi), 2x (masing-masing 75 gr/ tanaman/ aplikasi), dan 3x (masing-masing 50gr/-tanaman/ aplikasi). Aplikasi pertama dilakukan pada saat tanaman berumur 1 minggu dan diulang setiap 3 minggu kemudian. Perlakuan pembanding diaplikasikan dengan menyemprotkan pestisida nabati dan kimia sintetis ke pertanaman brokoli sesuai dengan kebiasaan petani dan konsentrasi anjuran. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap tingkat keru-sakan tanaman akibat serangan Crocidolomia binotalis, produksi tanaman, kadar N tanah dan populasi mikroba berguna di dalam tanah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa populasi hama pada disetiap petak perlakuan berbeda nyata. Populasi C. binotalis terting-gi pada perlakuan limbah nilam 75g sebesar 50 ekor, sedang-kan populasi terendah terlihat pada perlakuan tanpa mulsa rata-rata sebesar 7,6 ekor. Kadar N tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan Limbah nilam diikuti seraiwangi, akarwangi dan control dengan nilai berturut-turut 0,53, 0.46, 0,40, dan 0,39%. Dari semua perlakuan yang diuji, perlakuan limbah nilam dengan dosis 75 gr menghasilkan bobot segar tertinggi, sedangkan perlakuan limbah seraiwangi dengan dosis 75gr menghasilkan bobot segar terendah. Populasi jamur yang rendah pada perlakuan limbah nilam disusul perlakuan limbah akarwangi dan seraiwangi. Secara umum dari ketiga jenis limbah tanaman yang diuji limbah nilam memberikan prospek terbaik untuk dikembangkan dan dimanfaatkan petani.

Kata kunci: aromatik, hama, limbah, mulsa, repelen, tanaman

ABSTRACT

The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effectivity of mulch made from waste of vetiver, citronella, and patchouli as pest repelent of Crocidolomia binotalis (30%) on broccoli plants and as a source of  soil N that can increase soil N 2%. The experiment was conducted on broccoli plants in the Gunung Putri Experimental Garden, Cipanas, Bogor. Treatment provided by utilizing waste of vetiver, citronella, and patchouli as a mulch with a total dose of 150 gr / plant. The application consists of three ways, namely applied 1x (150gr/plant/application), 2x (each 75g/plant/application), and 3x (each 50 g/plant/application). The first application made during a week-old plant and was repeated every 3 weeks later. Comparative treatment plant was applied by spraying botanical and synthetic pesticides into the broccoli plants in accordance with the of farmers’ habits. Observations was made on the level of crop damage caused by attacks of Crocidolomia binotalis, crop production, soil N levels and microbial populations in soil. The results showed that the pest population in each treatment was significantly different. Average population of C. binotalis was highest at treatment of Patchouli 75 g i.e. 50 larvae, while the lowest population seen in the treatment without mulch i.e. 7,6 larvae. The highest level of N contained in patchouli, followed by citronella, vetiver and control which respectively was 0,53, 0,46, 0,40, and 0,39%. Of all the tested treatments, patchouli with a dose of 75 g generated the highest fresh weight, whereas citronella on 75 g fresh weight generated the lowest. Fungal populations are low on patchouli followed by vetiver and citronella. In general of the three types of waste, patchouli  has the best prospects to be developed.

Keywords: aromatic, mulch, pest, plant,  repellent, waste.

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